Funktsionalny atypia tumors often associated with the loss of the original fabric of specialized structures.
Depending on the tumor tissue atypism manifestations distinguish benign and malignant tumors.
Benign tumors are characterized by slow growth, rising in the capsule, pushing the surrounding tissue and without destroying them. They do not metastasize or recur after treatment, not whenlead to the depletion of tumor – cachexia.
Malignant tumors have characterizedstrym growth, growing up without a capsule, penetrating the cRouge tissues, destroy them and break functiontion bodies. They metastasize give relapses after treatment and lead to tumor depletedNIJ.
Development of tumor cachexia phenomenon can contribute to malnutrition due to non foodwalk of the digestive tract, krovotechNiya, food intoxication tumor disintegration, pain, insomnia, appetite disorders, depres-these.
A new concept of the origin of swellinglei. It is based on the state of existenceSRI common ways to implement the mechanism of action of various carcinogens. This does not deny the role of the chemical, physical and biological factors as a cause of tumor growth.
Due to the wide spread of the chemicalSgiach substances in the production and life, pollution, chemical carcinogens (called exogenous) are the most frequent cause of tumor growth. carcinogenic vescheARISING formed in the body (endogenous carcinogens). Or non-physiological concentrationprolonged exposure to these substances, such as certain hormones, may cause carcinogenNoah action by inappropriate activation of regularityliruemyh of tissue function and the stimulation of the glueexact division.
Carcinogenesis influenced by physical factors occurs in the areas of impact on the body of radiation exposure, as well as when exceeding the dose of X-ray or ultraviolet irradiation. Tumors can arise in the area of burn scarring or prolonged continuous SportsCorollary mechanical factors causing losstoast and inflammation.
Of great importance for the study of the pathogenesis of tumors were studies of viral carcinogenbehind. Works LA Zilber proved that the essence of wiRusnė oncogenesis not merely infecting the cell at which the reproduction of the viral particles and cells in malignant transformation followingCorollary inclusion of viral genetic material or its part in the cellular genome. Previously it was thought that the chemical and physical factors of influenceadded to the cell through viruses genes included in the genetic apparatus of the cell. new factsry only enriched this theory, without changing it receivedfundamentally provisions.
Number of tumors of viral origin are well established small. This is not a direct infection, but only about the complex mnogostadiynom during the transformation of normal cells to tumor that develops in accordance with the laws different from those in the Instituteinfectious process. From this perspective, cancer is not a contagious disease. The virus causes the cell changes hereditary and is not involved in the further development of the tumor. Infections malignancies people from one another, or surgery infection, operating itNVIRONMENTAL patients were observed.
Occurrence of tumors depends not only on the underrank, caused it, but also on factors contributing toboiling implementation of these reasons, ie. e. on the conditions. foundationsGOVERNMENTAL tumor occurrence conditions are antineoplastic decrease resistance, the presence of foci of chronic inflammation, proliferation and dystrophy, hereditary predisposition.
Antineoplastic rezistentnost is determined by many factors: the disposal of carcinogenSub- stances in liver, activity antimutatsionhydrochloric protection and control mechanisms tissues antigenic composition.
If tumor cells do occur, they are detected and eliminated with the help of cellular immune surveillance mechanisms. Therefore, the level of immune protection is very important for antineoplastic resistance. It is known that in the elderly develops atrophy Tumus -principal regulator of the immune system, the frequency of neoplastic diseases is greatly increased.
One of the risk factors for swellingLeft the inflammatory diseases are chroniction and proliferative processes in tissues. Outbreaks atrophy, cell multiplication in areas of chronic inflammation Cesky, substitution of one species epiteLeah other tricks represent violations tissue growth, create instability hereditary apparatus of cells and predispose to mutations. These states are called precancerous. Patients with precancerous diseases should undergo medical examination.
There is also a genetic predisposition to the development of tumors, passed on to offspring odThese gene and polygenic. Predisposition, Obuslovlennaya one gene usually explained by a defect in DNA repair enzymes. In these instances,s offline enzyme provides the restoredLenie mutagenic DNA and each mutation is being developed. In these individuals the risk of malignancy is increased tenfold.
When polygenic predisposition to develThe term feature is influenced by many genes, some of which are basic, and others – modifiers, auxiliarynye, changing of fixed genes. Poskolku development characteristic associated with gene complex, sometimes located in different chromosomes, reDacha offspring trait is more complicatedE ways, and susceptibility manifests itself in higher incidence of disease in families with burdenedhydrochloric heredity.
Diagnosis of tumors carried by chemistrycal and laboratory manifestations. treatment eviltumors value must be timely, and complex radical. Comprehensive treatment includes surgery, radiotherapy, drug exposure (chemotherapy).