The fear of the overwhelming majority of people in front of oncological disease is associated not so much with the widely held view of the inevitability of death, but with the thought of Nepeyatolerability excruciating pain that is accompaniedis a disease. Persistent pain syndrome vstrechaetsya almost 90% of cases, but only 10% of the harvestIt is from severe pain requiring application of drugcal anesthetics.
The use of modern analgesics for the treatment or reduction of pain intensity at the oncological patients significantly seizingsew their quality of life.
What is pain?
Pain is a protective mechanism, the witnessing the presence of the presence of effects on the body kasomeone Factor. Pain makes us consciously or reflexively take action directionlennye at eliminating or weakening vozdeystvuyu-
present the stimulus. Pain occurs when irritatedSRI sensory nerve endings, embedded in the skin, muscles, blood vessels, internal organs. Excitation of them along nerve fibers beforeetsya in the back, and then – to the brain.
Thus, the constant readiness of the body to perceive pain is one of the factors that determine the self-preservation. appearingof pain should be seen as a signal for the analysis of its causes, and taking active and conscious measures to address it.
Pain during sprouting cancer arises from the stretching or compression of tissues, their destruction. Moreover, the growing tumor might cause compression (compression) or occlusion (forkuporku) blood vessels.
If it affects the arteries violation occurs Power tissues (ischemia), which is followed by their death – necrosis. These changes are perceived as pain.
If the veins are compressed, the pain are less intense, as trophic disorders; in the tissues are less pronounced. At the same time, venous outflow violation causes congestion, edema, and tissue forms a pain impulse.
With the defeat of cancer or its metastatic bone pain caused by strong againDrazhenom sensory endings in Supraspinoustse. Accompanying this long muscle spasm it is also perceived as a painful sensation.
Visceral pain occurs when spasm of hollow organs (esophagus, stomach, intestines) or they are at their hyperextension associated with an increase in zlokative tumors.
Pain in lesions of parenchymal organs (Liver, kidney, spleen) due to irritationI eat pain receptors within their capsule during its germination or hyperextension. In addition, the visceral pain can be associated with concomitant diseases, violation of the outflow of biological fluids during compression of the body or tumor invasion podzheludoch ductshydrochloric gland, liver, urinary tract.
Pain intensity at different lesion serous membranes lining the pleural and abdominal cavities, to amplify ataccumulation of fluid in these cavities.
The most pronounced painful reaction at evilquality of malignancy associated with the compressed-Niemi or germination of various nervous wreath productplants, is roots, nerve trunks and spinal cord. Thus, when a malignant tumor of the pancreas severe pain associated with compression of adjacent solar plexus.
When brain lesion pain may be associated with sprouting or compression, as well as with increased intracranial pressure.
But the pain in malignant tumors may be associated with a general weakening of the patient youNeeding position in bed, causing a violation of integrity of the skin, there wasyuschee due to eating disorders tissues.
Without special events can not hope for the disappearance of pain in malignant tumors, and the sooner they are started, the better is the result. The best analgesic effect – this surgical vmeshaments. Removal of tumor-bearing bodiesor tissue results in cure of the disease and Troneniyu its accompanying pain response. Russsyvanie tumor under the influence of ongoing luchevoy antitumor drug or teraFDI leads to a weakening effect on tumor sensitive nerve endings in tissues and abilitycreases or stop the pain.
In patients with advanced forms of zlokachegovernmental tumor pain becomes chronic. Constant feeling of a man in pain on the background of tumor progression and growth of fiphe- ailment leads to depression, Narusheniyu sleep, rise of feelings of fear, helplessness and despair. If a patient does not see atpower and participation on the part of relatives and health care workers, it may become aggressive or even attempt suicide (suicide).
Formulations for analgesia chosen strictly individually preferred to use tablet formulations. Painful sensation inthe patient is always determined and evaluated according to his own subjective assessment of pain.
- When mild pain good results can be achieved when using dipyrone: 1 – 2 tabletsyrs 2-3 times a day in combination with suprastin or diphenhydramine.
- As required analginum replace complex analgesics, which include analgin: baralgin, pentalgin, sedalgin, tempalgin.
- analgesic effect also possess the known non-specific antiinflammatory agents such as aspirin, indomethacin, Diklo-fenac, ibuprofen and other prescribed 1 – 2 tabletsyrs 3 – 4 times a day. With increasing pain may be used and injectable formulations of these drugs.
- At moderate pain assigned stronger analgesic – Tramal, 1 – 2 capsules 2 – 3, 4 – 5 times per day. Tramal may be used as drops, injections. By the treatment at this stage of pain added sedative (uspokaivayuschie) means – Corvalol, valerian, wastelandnick or tranquilizers: Phenazepamum, seduksen, Relanium, 1 – 2 tablets 2 times a day.
- When a patient is prescribed strong pain drugscal means.
To achieve adequate analgesia using the optimum doses of drugs followsblowing respect the fundamental principles lecheNia chronic pain in cancer patients.
Acceptance by the hour rather than on demand. compliedof this principle makes it possible to achieve the maximum analgesic effect with a minimal daily dose of painkiller. Reception “on demand” drug ultimately entails the use of much larger doses as analgesic concentration in the blood plasma falls for its recovery and achieve a satisfactory level requires additional analgesia The amount of drug.
ascending treatment. Treatment begins with a non-opioid analgesics, when not movingfirst necessity for the weak, and then – to the strongnym opiates. Drugs are better atNima through the mouth as long as possible, as it is – the most convenient way to receive medication at home.
Getting rid of the pain of cancer patients – the most important thing in their treatment. This can be achieved only when the patient’s joint action, his family members and health care workers.