METODY cancer treatment

Surgical method of treating cancer It is the most efficient for most zlokache­governmental tumors. When this method was removed­are affected by a tumor organs or tissues, mouth­Wounding cause physical suffering of the patient, as well as the threat of further tumor spread throughout the body.

But this method does not always help the patient recover from cancer. Even a very small number of remaining after the operator­radio tumor cells that are invisible to the eye and does not distinguish by touch, sharing intense, can give rise to a new cell population which manifest themselves at some time in the form of relapse­va. Therefore, the surgical treatment of tumors removed within healthy tissue.

However, the increased volume of tissue removed can not always protect from disease progression. Cancer feature – the ability to give rise daughters­These tumors (metastases). Most often, the tumor cells spread through the lymphatic system. This system provides the suction of tissue water, and metabolic products consists of shrinking network­Shih vessels, gradually merging into a rump­nye, which flow through the lymph nodes. Lymph nodes are small glands performing protection of the organism from genetics­cally foreign cells or substances entering from the outside or generated in the body. Lymph­cal lymph nodes collected from any organ or body part, but their defeat Protective function­you assume the other node group. When injected into the lymphatic system tumor cells following­dnie delayed lymph nodes and mo­Gut cause metastasis development. Therefore, when the opera­tion removed lymph nodes related to the affected tumor anatomical area. This Obus­lovlivaet often crippling nature of such operators­tions, their severity and risk.

Refusal of surgical treatment is justified only in cases where the tumor affects organs that removal is not compatible with life, or when there are distant metastases. But even with this surgical procedure is applied to reduce swelling to expose the remaining tumor foci other therapies.

The earlier a tumor is detected the small size, the functional sparing operation will be carried out more easily. Such operation is well tolerated by the elderly and immunocompromised patients.

In some cases, a surgical method is used when to remove the cancer is no longer possible or feasible due to deliberate non-radical, but the associated complications are By direct­governmental threat to life. Patient death may at­not set foot on the progression of the tumor, and on the Call­Bathrooms her bleeding, intestinal obstruction, etc. The operation in this case -.. forced, and it is directed at overcoming these complications.

Surgical method used in malignant tumors, aims at saving or extending the patient’s life. Nevertheless, the fear of mutilation and the nature of the threat of being disfigured in some cases is the cause of failure of them. Some patients do not opt ​​for surgery because of lack of faith in the possibility izle­cheniya this way. If the patient offer operators­walkie-talkie, it means that oncologists have confidence in WHO­Moznosti complete removal of the tumor, the hope, if not a complete cure, the life-prolonging.

Thanks to a major development in oncology at rehabilitation of patients who have been previously ka­attending to surgery with modern amenities increased­mennye possibility of reconstructive surgery now. So, after a laryngectomy patients previously had to use the Voice of­Vym machines or study “of esophageal­losu “. Currently, developed methods for surgical repair of voice features such as using voice prostheses, and without them. After removal of the breast is possible not only to use the gel of the prosthesis, but its plastic recovery using GSS­governmental body tissues. For a better cosmetic result can be additionally used­vatsya endoprostheses, introduction of specific gels and the like. d. After removing the prosthetic jaw may­vanie its metal structures.

Currently, many cancer pain­nym administered as treatment for radiation therapy. In 40% of cases it is used as self­yours elf a treatment for cancer. Radiation therapy, also as a surgical method can completely destroy a cancerous tumor, there is a radical anti-tumor effect.

If patients understand what is happening the surgical treatment of tumors (removed certain organs, tissues), the effect of radiotherapy remains a mystery in many ways. If the tumor is not removed, then what happens to it? Where did she go? What complications are waiting for a patient after radiation therapy?

Common to all used in medicine ionization­ziruyuschih radiation is effective, from the point­of view of the biological action, transferability process­sa large amounts of energy in the sensitive structure of their action. Bearers of this energy can be type specific electromagnetic radiation (x-rays, gamma rays radioak­tive elements) or bundles of nuclei­particles (electrons, protons, neutrons, and t. d.).

The absorption of such quantities of energy DNA molecule – the basis of the genetic code – it leads to damage and as a result, disturbance of­cell activity. They can also be damaged by meme­brane cells, enzymes and other important biologists­cal molecules. This so-called direct WHO­effect of radiation energy. The indirect mechanism svya­coupled with exposure to ionizing energy for this different molecules and water, which is an integral part of the cell. As a result of the absorption­of the energy of the ions and the formation of free radicals. Each radical may in turn damage the whole molecule, which races­fall to the new radicals. So there is ionization­tion, which leads eventually to the harmed­Denia cell and tissue structures.

Radiobiological effect caused by radiation energy, depending on the biological properties of the exposed­shihsya irradiated tissue. Cells most sensitivity­tion to damaging factors when they in the process of division. Thus nai­are more sensitive to radiation tissue cells to­toryh most intensely divided. In the humanorganism are cells of the sex glands, blood-forming organs, some types of epithelium. insensitive­us to the radiant energy muscle and nerve tissue. .Zlokachestvennye tumors can occur in various­GOVERNMENTAL organs and tissues. sensitivity novoobra­mations exposed to radiation is higher, the bo­Lee was the primary sensitive tissue in which the tumor originated. But no matter of any tissue tumor originated, its cells divide much more frequently than the unaltered cells. Therefore, the same dose of radiation has on the tumor­fabric-hand more pronounced effect than Raspaud­Proposition near healthy. Based on this and radiotherapy. Its task – the maximum damage the cancer while preserving Pot­lities normal tissue structures.

Depending on where located zlokache­governmental neoplasm, oncologists use IU­todiku and a source of radiation that penetrates to a depth of a well-defined and absorbed by the OPU­holyu.

In some cases, using the contact method of radiation therapy. The radioactive source is disposed in the vicinity of the tumor:

  • applicator treatmentIt is in apposition to the surface location with the most­-adjoint tumors (skin, cornea, etc.). plates of a material which is a source of radiation (strontium, cobalt, cesium, etc.);
  • intracavitary treatment – summing a radioactive source tumors located­Foot in the hollow body. Source in the form of cylinders, spheres and other forms of organ lumen is introduced into and retained there for a certain time. Then – it is extracted. This method is used for the treatment of cervical and endometrial cancer, rectum, bladder. Sometimes radioactive elements in the form of colloidal solutions is introduced into the hollow bodies (mo­chevoy bladder, uterus) or body cavity (plevu­-sectoral, abdominal);
  • Remote method of radiation therapy Prima­nyaetsya with deep-seated cancer. The name of the method was due to the fact that the source of radiant energy is determined on­Mr distance from the patient. radiation source provides deep penetration of radiation and uniformity of absorption fabrics. Treatment is carried out on the special, providing a high degree of radiation protection devices.

Used machines, in which the source of radiation energy is radioactive cobalt, which gives a deep penetrating gamma radiation. Such devices are used for the treatment of tumors of any localization. Currently began transition from devices with radioactive sources for accelerators of elementary particles (electrons, protons). The depth of penetration is governed by the energy under the influence of which the particles move. By changing this energy, and you can change the depth of penetration of particles into the tissue and the maximum irradiated tumor and minimal – healthy tissue. On such machines can be floor­chat almost divergent energy beams of diameter­rum up to 1 cm for the point of irradiation is not very­large tumors (e.g., brain).

Needed to damage the tumor dose lu­chevoy energy can not take it odnomoment­but. Treatment is carried out at regular sessionsintervals. The higher the radiation dose the patient received, the longer the interval until the next session. This protects the surrounding OPU­Chol healthy tissue.

Place in the skin through which the radiant energy tray is called “field irradiation­Nia “. To reduce the radiation exposure to healthy tissue, but to ensure the damage of the tumor, using multiple fields of radiation from different angles. Sometimes the source is moving at exactly calc­tannoy trajectory around the patient, the center of rotation is a tumor. With this method of treating the load on the healthy tissue is minimized.

Before radiation therapy is performed dosimetric planning (measured and rasschity­vayut maximum dose effect on the tumor). The dose of radiation received by tissue depends on the activity of the source and time of exposure, but partitioned­etsya usually uneven. The farther away from the source,the effect is less pronounced, since different areas of the tumor receive different doses of radiation.

Malignant tumors can metastasize to the lymph nodes, which are po zone­hundred new tumor. As the surgical treatment,and radiation therapy, treatment success can be achieved only rid the body of all the centers of evil­qualitative growth. Therefore, exposure should be under­jected and the tumor and its metastases. sometimes IU­tastazy located next to education and can be irradiated with the primary tumor, but more often they are about­spatially separated, which requires a separate le­cheniya. In advanced cases, when the cure Paci­cient is no longer possible, radiation therapy is used to inhibit tumor growth, reduce its size or tumor-induced removal of heavy sympto­mov (compression vessels, trachea, brain) and serves to prolong or improve the patient’s quality of life. Radiotherapy gives complications, and that they cause fear of this type of treatment. Oslozh­neniya may be general in nature and take the form of:

  • weakness;
  • sickness;
  • loss of appetite;
  • fervescence;
  • changes in the blood (decrease Included Quantity­CTBA leukocytes or platelets);
  • dermatitis, ulcerations of the skin at the site of radiation therapy;
  • radial cystitis, proctitis, pneumonitis. Complications of radiation therapy can be corrected or eliminated by the termination of therapy or a break in treatment. The risk of complications of radiation therapy is much less of a risk at the same hee­rurgicheskom treatment.

Since ancient times, people worked on different cancers herbal medications or natural substances. These funds, having­guides cauterizing action applied mes-spot or inward to impact on the tumor.

Currently open substances that cause­Suitable growth inhibition or death of malignant tumors. Medicinal substances obtained chemistry­cal way, and the treatment they received the name of chemotherapy.

The use for the treatment of cancer pain­valuable natural or synthetic hormones called hormone therapy. The combined use of chemotherapy and hormones for therapeutic purposes in cancer is called chemo-hormonotherapy. Effects on the immune system in order to enhance anti-tumor immunity win­lo title tumor immunotherapy.

At the heart of modern chemotherapy is uc­use direct damaging effect about­tivoopuholevogo drug on malignant klet­ku. To achieve the destruction of all or the majority­ARISING tumor cell anti-tumor agents apply in person maximum tolerated doses. Chemotherapy drugs have side steps, and patients often refuse them. Chemotherapy or cytotoxic agents are capable of rapidly damaging the cells of any tissue, t. E., Not only the tumor but also healthy.

Patients often ask the question: “Is it worth it to do chemotherapy, especially the operation and radiotherapy did their job?”. Surgery and radiation but­FNF is essentially local in nature: these methods can be used to cure the tumor, located in the definition­lennom place, even if it reaches a considerable size and has regional metastases. but zloka­quality education, spreading their cells through the bloodstream, can metastasize to distant organs and tissues. How much and in what authorities were cancer cells as appeared metastases, you­yasnit is not always possible. Therefore, removing or y- irradiation­chenie recovery the patient is not given. Here also need chemotherapy. Spreading the bloodstream, the antineoplastic drug may impact­Vat on the tumor and its metastases, regardless of their to­lichestva and localization. damaging chemotherapy­by genetic apparatus malignant cells break fission process, causing its destruction.

Tumors are composed of an enormous number cancerous­GOVERNMENTAL cells. Only in one gram of tumor TKA­neither contains about a billion cells. Some are in the process of division and are sensitive to the action of cytostatic agents, others are in a state of rest, the action of chemotherapy reserved. Dividing cells, are in different phases of the process, damaged one antitumor cytostatic and remain bezraz­personal to the action of another. Therefore, to enhance the effect of chemotherapy oncologists old­are used simultaneous introduction of two, three and more cytostatics with different mechanisms of antitumor action. Such variants soche­tany dosage of anticancer agents are called chemotherapy regimens. for each­the first type of cancer vyrabota­us most effective schemes of treatment.

When you receive a complete response when the tumor after chemotherapy is not detected, to the bodies­Lowland is a sufficiently large number of OPU­-tumor cells that may cause recurrence (re-occurrence of tumors). It is therefore necessary to carry out repeated courses himiote­rapii. Each dose chemotherapy determinescytostatics, which is administered not once, but often­E, with certain intervals between administration­E. Such intermittent administration of cytotoxic drugs easier ne­Renos patient and the impact on a large number of tumor cells. During chemotherapy patient complications can occur:

  • inhibition of blood (hematopoietic cells bodies are rapidly dividing and therefore highly sensitive to the cytostatic effect);
  • appetite loss;
  • nausea, vomiting, stomatitis;
  • gastroenteritis;
  • hair loss;
  • phlebitis, thrombophlebitis.

There are a number of tools to help patients move chemotherapy. It must be remembered that this is not a harmless and simple treatment, but it is not necessary to be afraid of.

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