Surgical method of treating cancer It is the most efficient for most zlokachegovernmental tumors. When this method was removedare affected by a tumor organs or tissues, mouthWounding cause physical suffering of the patient, as well as the threat of further tumor spread throughout the body.
But this method does not always help the patient recover from cancer. Even a very small number of remaining after the operatorradio tumor cells that are invisible to the eye and does not distinguish by touch, sharing intense, can give rise to a new cell population which manifest themselves at some time in the form of relapseva. Therefore, the surgical treatment of tumors removed within healthy tissue.
However, the increased volume of tissue removed can not always protect from disease progression. Cancer feature – the ability to give rise daughtersThese tumors (metastases). Most often, the tumor cells spread through the lymphatic system. This system provides the suction of tissue water, and metabolic products consists of shrinking networkShih vessels, gradually merging into a rumpnye, which flow through the lymph nodes. Lymph nodes are small glands performing protection of the organism from geneticscally foreign cells or substances entering from the outside or generated in the body. Lymphcal lymph nodes collected from any organ or body part, but their defeat Protective functionyou assume the other node group. When injected into the lymphatic system tumor cells followingdnie delayed lymph nodes and moGut cause metastasis development. Therefore, when the operation removed lymph nodes related to the affected tumor anatomical area. This Obuslovlivaet often crippling nature of such operatorstions, their severity and risk.
Refusal of surgical treatment is justified only in cases where the tumor affects organs that removal is not compatible with life, or when there are distant metastases. But even with this surgical procedure is applied to reduce swelling to expose the remaining tumor foci other therapies.
The earlier a tumor is detected the small size, the functional sparing operation will be carried out more easily. Such operation is well tolerated by the elderly and immunocompromised patients.
In some cases, a surgical method is used when to remove the cancer is no longer possible or feasible due to deliberate non-radical, but the associated complications are By directgovernmental threat to life. Patient death may atnot set foot on the progression of the tumor, and on the CallBathrooms her bleeding, intestinal obstruction, etc. The operation in this case -.. forced, and it is directed at overcoming these complications.
Surgical method used in malignant tumors, aims at saving or extending the patient’s life. Nevertheless, the fear of mutilation and the nature of the threat of being disfigured in some cases is the cause of failure of them. Some patients do not opt for surgery because of lack of faith in the possibility izlecheniya this way. If the patient offer operatorswalkie-talkie, it means that oncologists have confidence in WHOMoznosti complete removal of the tumor, the hope, if not a complete cure, the life-prolonging.
Thanks to a major development in oncology at rehabilitation of patients who have been previously kaattending to surgery with modern amenities increasedmennye possibility of reconstructive surgery now. So, after a laryngectomy patients previously had to use the Voice ofVym machines or study “of esophageallosu “. Currently, developed methods for surgical repair of voice features such as using voice prostheses, and without them. After removal of the breast is possible not only to use the gel of the prosthesis, but its plastic recovery using GSSgovernmental body tissues. For a better cosmetic result can be additionally usedvatsya endoprostheses, introduction of specific gels and the like. d. After removing the prosthetic jaw mayvanie its metal structures.
Currently, many cancer painnym administered as treatment for radiation therapy. In 40% of cases it is used as selfyours elf a treatment for cancer. Radiation therapy, also as a surgical method can completely destroy a cancerous tumor, there is a radical anti-tumor effect.
If patients understand what is happening the surgical treatment of tumors (removed certain organs, tissues), the effect of radiotherapy remains a mystery in many ways. If the tumor is not removed, then what happens to it? Where did she go? What complications are waiting for a patient after radiation therapy?
Common to all used in medicine ionizationziruyuschih radiation is effective, from the pointof view of the biological action, transferability processsa large amounts of energy in the sensitive structure of their action. Bearers of this energy can be type specific electromagnetic radiation (x-rays, gamma rays radioaktive elements) or bundles of nucleiparticles (electrons, protons, neutrons, and t. d.).
The absorption of such quantities of energy DNA molecule – the basis of the genetic code – it leads to damage and as a result, disturbance ofcell activity. They can also be damaged by memebrane cells, enzymes and other important biologistscal molecules. This so-called direct WHOeffect of radiation energy. The indirect mechanism svyacoupled with exposure to ionizing energy for this different molecules and water, which is an integral part of the cell. As a result of the absorptionof the energy of the ions and the formation of free radicals. Each radical may in turn damage the whole molecule, which racesfall to the new radicals. So there is ionizationtion, which leads eventually to the harmedDenia cell and tissue structures.
Radiobiological effect caused by radiation energy, depending on the biological properties of the exposedshihsya irradiated tissue. Cells most sensitivitytion to damaging factors when they in the process of division. Thus naiare more sensitive to radiation tissue cells totoryh most intensely divided. In the humanorganism are cells of the sex glands, blood-forming organs, some types of epithelium. insensitiveus to the radiant energy muscle and nerve tissue. .Zlokachestvennye tumors can occur in variousGOVERNMENTAL organs and tissues. sensitivity novoobramations exposed to radiation is higher, the boLee was the primary sensitive tissue in which the tumor originated. But no matter of any tissue tumor originated, its cells divide much more frequently than the unaltered cells. Therefore, the same dose of radiation has on the tumorfabric-hand more pronounced effect than RaspaudProposition near healthy. Based on this and radiotherapy. Its task – the maximum damage the cancer while preserving Potlities normal tissue structures.
Depending on where located zlokachegovernmental neoplasm, oncologists use IUtodiku and a source of radiation that penetrates to a depth of a well-defined and absorbed by the OPUholyu.
In some cases, using the contact method of radiation therapy. The radioactive source is disposed in the vicinity of the tumor:
- applicator treatmentIt is in apposition to the surface location with the most-adjoint tumors (skin, cornea, etc.). plates of a material which is a source of radiation (strontium, cobalt, cesium, etc.);
- intracavitary treatment – summing a radioactive source tumors locatedFoot in the hollow body. Source in the form of cylinders, spheres and other forms of organ lumen is introduced into and retained there for a certain time. Then – it is extracted. This method is used for the treatment of cervical and endometrial cancer, rectum, bladder. Sometimes radioactive elements in the form of colloidal solutions is introduced into the hollow bodies (mochevoy bladder, uterus) or body cavity (plevu-sectoral, abdominal);
- Remote method of radiation therapy Primanyaetsya with deep-seated cancer. The name of the method was due to the fact that the source of radiant energy is determined onMr distance from the patient. radiation source provides deep penetration of radiation and uniformity of absorption fabrics. Treatment is carried out on the special, providing a high degree of radiation protection devices.
Used machines, in which the source of radiation energy is radioactive cobalt, which gives a deep penetrating gamma radiation. Such devices are used for the treatment of tumors of any localization. Currently began transition from devices with radioactive sources for accelerators of elementary particles (electrons, protons). The depth of penetration is governed by the energy under the influence of which the particles move. By changing this energy, and you can change the depth of penetration of particles into the tissue and the maximum irradiated tumor and minimal – healthy tissue. On such machines can be floorchat almost divergent energy beams of diameterrum up to 1 cm for the point of irradiation is not verylarge tumors (e.g., brain).
Needed to damage the tumor dose luchevoy energy can not take it odnomomentbut. Treatment is carried out at regular sessionsintervals. The higher the radiation dose the patient received, the longer the interval until the next session. This protects the surrounding OPUChol healthy tissue.
Place in the skin through which the radiant energy tray is called “field irradiationNia “. To reduce the radiation exposure to healthy tissue, but to ensure the damage of the tumor, using multiple fields of radiation from different angles. Sometimes the source is moving at exactly calctannoy trajectory around the patient, the center of rotation is a tumor. With this method of treating the load on the healthy tissue is minimized.
Before radiation therapy is performed dosimetric planning (measured and rasschityvayut maximum dose effect on the tumor). The dose of radiation received by tissue depends on the activity of the source and time of exposure, but partitionedetsya usually uneven. The farther away from the source,the effect is less pronounced, since different areas of the tumor receive different doses of radiation.
Malignant tumors can metastasize to the lymph nodes, which are po zonehundred new tumor. As the surgical treatment,and radiation therapy, treatment success can be achieved only rid the body of all the centers of evilqualitative growth. Therefore, exposure should be underjected and the tumor and its metastases. sometimes IUtastazy located next to education and can be irradiated with the primary tumor, but more often they are aboutspatially separated, which requires a separate lecheniya. In advanced cases, when the cure Pacicient is no longer possible, radiation therapy is used to inhibit tumor growth, reduce its size or tumor-induced removal of heavy symptomov (compression vessels, trachea, brain) and serves to prolong or improve the patient’s quality of life. Radiotherapy gives complications, and that they cause fear of this type of treatment. Oslozhneniya may be general in nature and take the form of:
- loss of appetite;
- changes in the blood (decrease Included QuantityCTBA leukocytes or platelets);
- dermatitis, ulcerations of the skin at the site of radiation therapy;
- radial cystitis, proctitis, pneumonitis. Complications of radiation therapy can be corrected or eliminated by the termination of therapy or a break in treatment. The risk of complications of radiation therapy is much less of a risk at the same heerurgicheskom treatment.
Since ancient times, people worked on different cancers herbal medications or natural substances. These funds, havingguides cauterizing action applied mes-spot or inward to impact on the tumor.
Currently open substances that causeSuitable growth inhibition or death of malignant tumors. Medicinal substances obtained chemistrycal way, and the treatment they received the name of chemotherapy.
The use for the treatment of cancer painvaluable natural or synthetic hormones called hormone therapy. The combined use of chemotherapy and hormones for therapeutic purposes in cancer is called chemo-hormonotherapy. Effects on the immune system in order to enhance anti-tumor immunity winlo title tumor immunotherapy.
At the heart of modern chemotherapy is ucuse direct damaging effect abouttivoopuholevogo drug on malignant kletku. To achieve the destruction of all or the majorityARISING tumor cell anti-tumor agents apply in person maximum tolerated doses. Chemotherapy drugs have side steps, and patients often refuse them. Chemotherapy or cytotoxic agents are capable of rapidly damaging the cells of any tissue, t. E., Not only the tumor but also healthy.
Patients often ask the question: “Is it worth it to do chemotherapy, especially the operation and radiotherapy did their job?”. Surgery and radiation butFNF is essentially local in nature: these methods can be used to cure the tumor, located in the definitionlennom place, even if it reaches a considerable size and has regional metastases. but zlokaquality education, spreading their cells through the bloodstream, can metastasize to distant organs and tissues. How much and in what authorities were cancer cells as appeared metastases, youyasnit is not always possible. Therefore, removing or y- irradiationchenie recovery the patient is not given. Here also need chemotherapy. Spreading the bloodstream, the antineoplastic drug may impactVat on the tumor and its metastases, regardless of their tolichestva and localization. damaging chemotherapyby genetic apparatus malignant cells break fission process, causing its destruction.
Tumors are composed of an enormous number cancerousGOVERNMENTAL cells. Only in one gram of tumor TKAneither contains about a billion cells. Some are in the process of division and are sensitive to the action of cytostatic agents, others are in a state of rest, the action of chemotherapy reserved. Dividing cells, are in different phases of the process, damaged one antitumor cytostatic and remain bezrazpersonal to the action of another. Therefore, to enhance the effect of chemotherapy oncologists oldare used simultaneous introduction of two, three and more cytostatics with different mechanisms of antitumor action. Such variants sochetany dosage of anticancer agents are called chemotherapy regimens. for eachthe first type of cancer vyrabotaus most effective schemes of treatment.
When you receive a complete response when the tumor after chemotherapy is not detected, to the bodiesLowland is a sufficiently large number of OPU-tumor cells that may cause recurrence (re-occurrence of tumors). It is therefore necessary to carry out repeated courses himioterapii. Each dose chemotherapy determinescytostatics, which is administered not once, but oftenE, with certain intervals between administrationE. Such intermittent administration of cytotoxic drugs easier neRenos patient and the impact on a large number of tumor cells. During chemotherapy patient complications can occur:
- inhibition of blood (hematopoietic cells bodies are rapidly dividing and therefore highly sensitive to the cytostatic effect);
- appetite loss;
- nausea, vomiting, stomatitis;
- hair loss;
- phlebitis, thrombophlebitis.
There are a number of tools to help patients move chemotherapy. It must be remembered that this is not a harmless and simple treatment, but it is not necessary to be afraid of.