Infectious complications of MM, including from the side of the bronchopulmonary system, are the main cause of mortality in these patients. The most frequent and serious infectious complications of paraproteinemic hemoblastosis are pneumonia . It was noted that pneumonia is found 5 times more often in patients receiving high-dose therapy than in the background of supportive therapy. The most important therapeutic measures taken in pneumonia, acute bronchitis and other infectious complications in patients with MM include effects on the causative agent and the elimination of infections. toxication; relief of the inflammatory response; restoration of the drainage function of the lungs; correction of violations of urodynamics; normalization of the immunobiological reactivity of the patient .
A.N. Sokolov, G.M. Galstyan and V.G. Savchenko (2007) described pneumonia in patients with hematological diseases. According to the authors, more than half of the patients who undergo high-dose, leading to prolonged myelosuppression, types of chemotherapy tolerate pneumonia. The following risk factors for the development of pneumonia in patients with neutropenia were identified: impaired normal microflora , damage to the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract by radiation or drug exposure , aspiration (in patients receiving drugs that cause impaired consciousness), microaspiration during vomiting. At the beginning of the neutropenic period, bacterial infections predominate. The main causative agents are K. pneumoniae, other Enterobacteriacae, P. aureginosa, S. aureus. Local pulmonary infiltrates that occur after the 7th day of empirical antibiotic therapy are in most cases caused by fungal processes, often aspergillous and candidal, less often by others. In this paper, the characteristics of the course of pneumonia caused by various pathogens on the background of neutropenia are described .