Leukemia (blue leukemia, lymphosarcoma or blood cancer) is a group of tumor diseases with characteristic uncontrolled overgrowth and various etiologies. Leukemia, the symptoms of which are determined on the basis of its specific form, proceeds with the gradual replacement of normal cells with leukemia, against the background of which serious complications develop (bleeding, anemia, etc.).
In a normal state, cells in the body are subject to division, maturation, performance of functions and death in accordance with the program that is embedded in them. After the death of cells, their destruction begins, after which in their place are already new, young cells. With regard to cancer, it implies a violation in the program of cells relating to their division, life and functions, as a result of which their growth and reproduction occur outside the framework of any control. Leukemia is essentially a cancer in which the cells of the bone marrow are affected - cells that in a healthy person are the beginning of blood cells (leukocytes and red blood cells (white and red blood cells), platelets (blood platelets.) Leukocytes (they are also white blood cells , white blood cells.) The main function is to provide protection for the body from exposure to foreign agents, as well as direct involvement in the fight against the processes associated with infectious diseases. red blood cells.) In this case, the main function is to ensure the transfer to the tissues of the body of oxygen and other types of substances.Prombocytes (they are also blood plates), their main function is to participate in the process providing blood clotting. the importance of this function for blood as a consideration of it in the form of a protective reaction, necessary for the body in the case of significant blood loss, concomitant with vascular injury. People who have developed blood cancer, face violations of the bone marrow processes, which causes blood to be saturated with a significant number of white blood cells, that is, leukocytes lacking the ability to perform their inherent functions. Cancer cells, unlike healthy cells, do not die at the right time - their activity is focused on blood circulation, which makes them a serious obstacle to healthy cells, whose work, accordingly, is complicated. This, as already understood, leads to the spread of leukemia cells in the body, as well as to their entry into the organs or lymph nodes. In the latter variant, such an invasion provokes an increase in the organ or lymph node, in some cases pain may also appear. Leukemia and leukemia are synonyms of each other, indicating, in fact, the cancer of the blood. Both these definitions act as a correct name for the actual disease for their processes. As for blood cancer, this definition is not correct in terms of considering it from a medical point of view, although it is this term that received the main prevalence in use. A more correct name for blood cancer is hemoblastosis, which implies a group of tumor formations formed on the basis of hematopoietic cells. Tumor formation (actually a tumor) is an actively expanding tissue that is little subject to control by the body, in addition, education is not the result of the accumulation of nonmetabolized cells in it or the result of inflammation. Hemoblastoses, the tumor cells of which are affected by bone marrow damage, are defined as the leukemias or lymphomas we are considering. Leukemia is different from lymphoma in that, firstly, some of them have systemic lesions (leukemia), in others it is, respectively, absent (lymphoma). The terminal (final) stage of lymphoma is accompanied by metastasis (which also affects the bone marrow). Leukemia means a primary lesion of the bone marrow, while lymphomas affect it again, already as an effect of metastases. Considering the fact that leukemia predominantly determines the presence of tumor cells in the blood, the term "leukemia" is used in the designation of leukemias. Summing up the general description of the disease, we shall single out its features. So, the cancer of blood means under itself such tumor which develops on the basis of one cell, directly relating to the bone marrow. This implies an uncontrolled and constant division of it, occurring within a certain time interval, which can be several weeks or several months. Moreover, as already noted, the co-moving process is the replacement and suppression of other blood cells, that is, normal cells (suppression determines the impact on their growth and development). Symptoms of blood cancer, taking into account these characteristics of the impact, will be closely associated with a shortage in the body of a type of normal and active cells. Tumor,
as such, does not exist in the body with blood cancer, that is, it will not be able to see it, which is explained by its "absent-mindedness" in the body, this diffusion provides the flow of blood.
Based on the aggressiveness inherent in the course of the disease, the acute form of leukemia and chronic form are isolated. Acute leukemia involves the detection in the blood of a significant number of cancerous immature cells, their functions do not perform their functions. Symptoms of leukemia in this case are manifested early enough, the disease is characterized by rapid progression. Chronic leukemia determines the ability of cancer cells to perform the functions inherent in them, due to which for a long time the symptoms of the disease do not manifest. Detection of chronic leukemia occurs quite often in a random way, for example, as part of a preventive check-up, or, if necessary, studying a patient's blood for one purpose or another. The course of the chronic form of the disease is characterized by less aggressiveness, in comparison with its acute form, but this does not exclude its progression due to a constant increase in the number of cancer cells in the blood. Both forms have an important feature, it consists that despite the scenario of many diseases, the acute form never becomes chronic and the chronic form can never become aggravated. Accordingly, definitions such as "acute" or "chronic" form are used only for the convenience of attributing the disease to a specific scenario of its course.
Depending on the specific type of leukocytes involved in the pathological process, the following types of leukemia are distinguished: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (or chronic lymphocytic leukemia, lymphocytic chronic leukemia) is a type of blood cancer that is accompanied by a violation of the division of lymphocytes in the bone marrow and a violation of their maturation . Chronic myelocytic leukemia (or chronic myelogenous leukemia, myelocytic chronic leukemia) - this type of blood cancer, the course of which leads to a violation of the division of bone marrow cells and to a violation of their maturation, these cells in this case act as younger forms of erythrocytes, platelets and leukocytes . Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (or acute lymphocytic leukemia, lymphoblastic acute leukemia) - the course of blood cancer in this case is characterized by a violation of division in the bone marrow of lymphocytes, as well as a violation of their maturation. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (or acute myelogenous leukemia, myeloblastic acute leukemia) - in this case, blood cancer is accompanied by a violation of the division of bone marrow cells and a violation of their maturation, these cells act as younger forms of erythrocytes, platelets and leukocytes. Based on the type of cells involved in the pathological process, and also based on the degree of disruption of their maturation, the following types of the course of this form of cancer are distinguished: leukemia without concomitant maturation of cells; leukemia, the maturation of cells at which occurs not in full volume; leukemia is promyeloblast; myelomonoblastic leukemia; leukemia monoblastous; erythroleukemia; leukemia megakaryoblastny.
What actually causes leukemia, is currently unknown. Meanwhile, there are certain ideas on this subject, which may well contribute to the development of this disease. In particular, it is: Radioactive exposure: it is noted that those people who have been exposed to such exposure in significant amounts of radiation are more likely to acquire acute myeloblastic leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia or leukemia myelocytic chronic. Smoking. Long-term contact with benzenes, widely used in the chemical industry, as a result of which, accordingly, the risk of developing leukemia of certain types increases. By the way, benzenes are also contained in gasoline and cigarette smoke. Down syndrome, as well as a number of other diseases with concomitant chromosomal abnormalities - all this can also provoke acute leukemia. Chemotherapy for certain types of cancer can also lead to the development of leukemia in the future. Heredity, this time, a significant role in predisposition to the development of leukemia does not play. It is extremely rare in practice to encounter cases in which several members of the family contract cancer in an order characteristic of the isolation of heredity as a factor that provoked it. And if it happens that such an option really becomes possible, then mostly it implies a chronic lymphocytic leukemia. It is also important to note that if you have determined the susceptibility to the risk of developing leukemia by the factors listed, this is not at all a reliable fact for its mandatory development in you. Many people, noting for themselves, even at the same time, several of the actual factors listed above, do not face a disease with the disease.
: SYMPTOMS Symptoms that accompany the disease we are considering, as we know
They were noted, are determined from the features and extent of the spread of cancer cells, as well as from the total number of them. Chronic leukemia within the early stage, for example, is characterized by a small number of cancer cells, which for this reason can be accompanied for a long time by the asymptomatic course of the disease. In the case of acute leukemia, which we also noted, the symptoms manifest themselves early. We distinguish those main symptoms that accompany the course of leukemia (in acute or chronic form): an increase in lymph nodes (mainly those that concentrate in the armpits or in the neck), the tenderness of the lymph nodes in leukemia is usually absent; increased fatigue, weakness; susceptibility to the development of infectious diseases (herpes, bronchitis, pneumonia, etc.); elevated temperature (without accompanying changes in its factors), increased sweating at night; joint pain; enlargement of the liver or spleen, against which, in turn, a pronounced feeling of heaviness in the region of the right or left hypochondrium may develop; disorders associated with blood coagulability: the appearance of bruises, nasal bleeding, the appearance of red spots under the skin, bleeding gums. Against the background of accumulation of cancer cells in certain areas of the body, the following symptomatology appears: confusion; dyspnea; headache; nausea, vomiting; violation of coordination of movements; blurred vision; convulsions in certain areas; the appearance of painful edema in the groin, upper limbs; pain in the scrotum, swelling (in men).
Leukemia in children, the symptoms of which are most often manifested in this form of the disease, mainly develops within the age of 3-7 years, moreover, it is among the children that this disease, unfortunately, received its greatest prevalence. Let's highlight the main symptoms that are relevant for ALL: Intoxication. It is manifested in malaise, weakness, fever, and weight loss is also noted. Provoke a fever infection (viral, bacterial, fungal or protozoal (which is noted somewhat less often)). Hyperplastic syndrome. Characterized by the actual increase in peripheral lymph nodes of all groups. Because of the infiltration of the spleen and liver, they increase in size, which can also be accompanied by pain in the abdomen. Leukemia infiltration of the periosteum in conjunction with the tumor increase to which the bone marrow is exposed can cause a sensation of aches and pain in the joints. Anemic syndrome. It manifests itself in the form of such symptoms as weakness, pallor, tachycardia. In addition, there is bleeding gums. Weakness is a consequence of intoxication and actually anemia. Initial change in testicle size (increase). There is an order in 30% of cases of the primary form of ALL in boys. Infiltrates (tissue sites in which cellular elements are formed that are not characteristic of them, with a characteristically increased volume and increased density) can be unilateral or bilateral. Hemorrhages in the retina, swelling of the optic nerve. Ophthalmoscopy in this case can often reveal the presence within the eye fundus of leukemic plaques. Respiratory disorders. They are caused by an increase in lymph nodes within the mediastinum region, which, in turn, can provoke respiratory failure. In view of the reduced immunity, damage of any type, regardless of the intensity of the exposure, the area and the nature of the lesion, forms a focus of infection on the skin. As rare enough, but not excluded for this reason manifestations, allocate complications such as kidney damage that develops against the background of infiltration, and the clinical symptomatology in this case may be absent. ACUTE MYELOBLASTIC LEUKEMIS: SYMPTOMS It can manifest itself at any age, but most often it is diagnosed in patients after 55 years of age. Mostly the symptoms characteristic of acute myelogenous leukemia manifest themselves in a gradual manner. As the earliest sign of the disease, malaise is singled out, and it may appear several months before the rest of the symptoms show itself. Symptomatic of this disease is inherent in the previous form of leukemia and leukemia as a whole. So, here we have already seen the anemia and toxic syndromes that we have already seen, which manifests itself in dizziness, severe weakness, increased fatigue, poor appetite, and fever without concomitant catarrhal phenomena (that is, without specific factors provoking it: viruses, infections, etc. .). In most cases, the lymph nodes are not particularly altered, they are small in size, painless. Their increase is rarely noted, which can determine for them dimensions within 2.5-5 cm, with the concomitant formation of conglomerates (that is, the lymph nodes are welded together in such a way that a characteristic "lump" appears), centered within the framework of the cervical- supraclavicular site. The osteoarticular system is also characterized by some
Changes. So, in some cases, this implies the persistent pains that arise in the joints of the lower limbs, as well as the pains that are centered along the spine, resulting in impaired gait and movement. Radiographs in this case determine the presence of destructive changes in various areas of localization, the phenomenon of osteoporosis, etc. Many patients face a certain degree of increase in the spleen and liver.
Again, general symptoms are common in the form of susceptibility to infectious diseases, the appearance of bruises with minor bruises or without effects in general, bleeding of various specificities (uterine, gum, nasal), weight loss and pain in the bones (joints). CHRONIC MYELOCITARY LEUKEMIS: SYMPTOMS This disease is primarily diagnosed in patients aged 30-50 years, and in men, the disease is more common than in women, while in children it appears rarely. In the early stages of the disease, patients often complain of reduced performance and fatigue. In some cases, the progression of the disease can occur only after about 2-10 years (and even more) from the moment the diagnosis was made. In this case, the number of leukocytes in the blood increases significantly, which is mainly due to promyelocytes and myelocytes. In a state of rest, as with exercise, patients develop shortness of breath. There is also an increase in the spleen and liver, resulting in a feeling of heaviness and pain in the region of the left hypochondrium. Expressed thickening of blood can provoke the development of a spleen infarction, which is accompanied by increased pain in the left hypochondrium, nausea and vomiting, and fever. Against the background of blood clotting, the development of blood-related disorders is not ruled out, this, in turn, manifests itself in the form of dizziness and severe headaches, and also in the form of impaired coordination of movements and orientation. Progression of the disease is accompanied by typical manifestations: pain in the bones and joints, susceptibility to infectious diseases, weight loss.
SYMPTOMS For a long time the disease can not manifest itself at all, and its progression can last for years. In accordance with the progression, the following characteristic symptoms are noted: Lymph node enlargement (causeless or against the background of actual infectious diseases such as bronchitis, tonsillitis, etc.). Pain in the right hypochondrium, resulting from an increase in the liver / spleen. Exposure to the frequent occurrence of infectious diseases due to decreased immunity (cystitis, pyelonephritis, herpes, pneumonia, shingles, bronchitis, etc.). The development of autoimmune diseases against the background of disturbances in the functioning of the immune system, which consists in the fight of the immune cells of the organism with cells belonging to the very organism. Because of autoimmune processes, thrombocytes and erythrocytes are destroyed, nasal bleeding, bleeding gums, jaundice develops, etc. Lymph nodes in this form of the disease correspond to their normal parameters, but their increase occurs with the influence of certain infections on the body. After the source of infection is eliminated, their reverse reduction occurs to the usual state. The enlargement of the lymph nodes mainly begins gradually, mainly changes are noted, primarily in the cervical lymph nodes and lymph nodes in the axillary basins. Further, the process spreads to the mediastinum and abdominal cavity, as well as to the groin area. Here, the common symptoms for leukemia are manifested in the form of weakness, increased fatigue and sweating. Thrombocytopenia and anemia are absent during the early stages of the disease. DIAGNOSTICS The diagnosis of leukemia can be established solely on the basis of the indications of blood tests. In particular, this is a general analysis, through which you can get a preliminary idea of the nature of the disease. For the most reliable result, the data obtained during the puncture are used for the relevance of leukemia. Puncture of the bone marrow consists of performing a puncture of the pelvic bone or sternum area with a thick needle, during which a certain amount of bone marrow is removed for subsequent examination using a microscope. A cytologist (a specialist who studies the results of this procedure under a microscope) will determine the specific type of tumor, the degree of its aggressiveness, and also the volume that is covered by the tumor lesion. In more complex cases, the method of biochemical diagnostics, immunohistochemistry, is used, with the help of which, on the basis of the specific amount of a particular type of protein in the tumor, there is the possibility of a virtually 100% determination of its inherent nature. Let us explain the importance of determining the nature of the tumor. Our body in a simultaneous order has a lot of cells, postgrowing and developing, on the basis of which one can come to the conclusion that leukemias can also be relevant in their most varied variations. Meanwhile, this is not entirely true: those that are found most often have already been studied sufficiently and have been studied for a long time, however, the more perfect the methods for diagnosing, the more we learn about the possible varieties of varieties, the same applies to their quantity. The difference between tumors determines the properties characteristic for each variant, which means that this difference is also related to sensitivity to the therapy applied to them, including in the combined types of its use. Actually for this reason, it is important to determine the nature of the tumor, on the basis of which it will be possible to determine the optimal and most effective treatment option. TREATMENT Treatment of leukemia is determined on the basis of a number of factors accompanying it, its type, stage of development, the state of health of the patient as a whole and his age. Acute leukemia requires an immediate start of treatment, due to which it will be possible to stop the accelerated growth of leukemia cells. It often turns out to achieve remission (often the condition is determined in this way, rather than "recovery", which is explained by the possible return of the disease). As for chronic leukemia, it is rarely cured before the remission stage, although the use of certain therapies allows it to control the course of the disease. As a rule, the treatment of chronic leukemia begins with the onset of symptoms, while chronic myeloid leukemia in some cases begins to be treated immediately after the diagnosis is made. The following are defined as the main methods of leukemia treatment: Chemotherapy. Appropriate medicines are used, the action of which allows to destroy cancer cells. Radiotherapy or radiotherapy. The use of certain radiation (X-ray, etc.), which provides the possibility of destruction of cancer cells, in addition, the spleen / liver and lymph nodes that undergone an increase in the background of the processes of the disease under consideration are reduced. In some cases, this method is used as a previous procedure for stem cell transplantation, about it - below. Stem cell transplantation. Due to this procedure, it is possible to restore the production of healthy cells while improving the performance of the immune system. Prior to the transplantation procedure may be chemotherapy or radiotherapy, the use of which can destroy a certain number of cells in the bone marrow, as well as free up space for stem cells and weaken the immune system. It should be noted that the achievement of the latter effect plays an important role for this procedure, otherwise immunity can begin to reject cells transplanted to the patient. FORECAST Each type of cancer is effectively effective (or ineffectively) treatable, respectively, the prognosis for each of these types is determined on the basis of an examination of the complex picture of the disease, the specific course of the course and the attendant factors. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia and prognosis for it in particular is determined on the basis of the level in the blood of leukocytes upon detection of this disease, and also on the basis of the correctness and promptness of therapy addressed to it and the patient's age. Children from 2 to 10 years often achieve a long-term remission, which, as we have already noted, if not complete recovery, then, at a minimum, determines the condition with missing symptomatology. It should be noted that the more leukocytes in the blood during the diagnosis of the disease, the less likely the full recovery. For acute myelogenous leukemia, the prognosis is determined depending on the type of cells that are involved in the pathological course of the disease, the age of the patient and the correctness of the prescribed therapy. Standard modern therapy regimens determine about 35% of the cases of survival in the next five years (or more) for adult patients (up to 60 years). In this case, a trend is indicated, in which the patient is older, the prognosis for survival is worse. So, patients from 60 years only in 10% of cases can live five years from the moment of revealing at them of disease. The prognosis for chronic myelogenous leukemia is determined by the stage of its course, it progresses in a somewhat slower order in comparison with acute leukemia. About 85% of patients with this form of disease come to severe deterioration after 3-5 years from the time of its detection. It is defined in this case as a blast crisis, that is, the last stage of the course of the disease, accompanied by the appearance in the bone marrow and in the blood of a significant number of immature cells. Timeliness and correctness of applied therapies determine the possibility of survival of the patient within 5-6 years from the moment of detection of this form of the disease. The use of modern therapies determines the high chances of survival, reaching a period of 10 years, and sometimes more. As for the prognosis for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, here the survival rate varies somewhat in terms of indicators. So, some patients die within the next 2-3 years from the time they detect a disease (which occurs as a result of the development of their complications). Meanwhile, in other cases, the survival rate is at least 5-10 years from the time the disease was detected, moreover, it is possible that these values will be exceeded until the disease passes to the terminal (final) stage of development. If you have any symptoms that may indicate a possible topicality of leukemia, you should contact a hematologist.
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