Basic data of clinical, laboratory and instrumental studies
In most patients, the symptoms of acute leukemia are not specific, however, the diagnosis is usually not difficult to study the history of the disease, physical data, the study of peripheral blood and myelogram.
I. Symptoms of acute leukemia: Weakness, indisposition, shortness of breath; hemorrhagic manifestations from minimal effects and injuries; weight loss; ossalgia; abdominal pain (rare); neurological symptoms (rare).
Ii. Clinical signs of acute leukemia: Anemic syndrome (weakness, pallor, tachycardia); hemorrhagic syndrome (ecchymosis, petechiae, internal and external bleeding); fever and infections (pneumonia, sepsis, pararectal abscess); lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, expansion of the mediastinum; infiltration of the gums and skin (rarely); increased kidney and development of renal failure (rare); damage to the meninges and cranial nerves (rare).
III. Important laboratory and diagnostic tests for acute leukemia. A blood test with leukocyte count; coagulogram with determination of fibrinogen level; biochemical parameters (transaminases, creatinine, uric acid, calcium, phosphorus, electrolytes); a study of aspirate and trepanobioptata (not in all cases) of the bone marrow; determination of the blast cell phenotype, cytogenetic (according to indications – molecular genetic) studies; analysis of cerebrospinal fluid; X-ray of the chest, ultrasound of the abdominal cavity, computed tomography of the chest and abdominal cavity (according to indications in acute lymphoblastic leukemia); HLA-typing (in young patients).