• pain – one of the symptoms of the disease. UsuallyPain dull, aching and pressing, are located in the upper abdomen. Increased pain may WHO­Nick after a fatty meal or alcohol. Upon accession, inflammation, pain can have herpes character. Sometimes strong pain due to compression of the solar plexus;
  • jaundice, which is growing rapidly, there is itching. Characteristically dark urine staining and light (gray) cal. Fecal fat­nye poorly washed with water on the bowl wall;

. • Weight loss of up to 10 – 15% per month;

  • increase in body temperature to 38 ° C and above;
  • palpation can be felt the presence of ca.­ruglogo painless in ne Education­Cheney – an enlarged gall bladder. Enlargement of the spleen and the pain in her area are rare.

Esophageal cancer has the following symptoms slaughtering­Levan:

  • salivate – first and quite early symptom of malignancy;
  • violation of swallowing, while taking fuss food­cabins unpleasant sensation, scratching feeling when passing food bolus or at any level or delay. Difficulty swallowing solid alloy­Doi food. Food has to drink, later hardly passes and liquid food, in this case, the patient feels a sense of fullness. Choking when eating;
  • halitosis due food DELAY­alive in the esophagus;
  • vomiting eaten food;
  • chest pain or interscapular Oblas­ty, cough, hoarseness;
  • progressive weight loss.

Breast cancer – the most common­Noah disease common in women. on wounds­these stages there is a seal of painless­transform of in breast size “pea” hereinafter – with a “nut” or more. Uwe­lichenie in size can be rapid or months­E do not change size. Uneven surface, OPU­Chol may be movable with the gland otno­respect of the chest, or be associated with it. The patient has the following symptoms:

“Discharge from the nipple, often bloody, nipple retracted;

  • skin above the tumor can be retracted, hyperemic;
  • there is an increase in body temperature;
  • in the nipple may cause erosions, weeping surface coated flakes and peels;
  • an increase in the lymph nodes of the subclavian and axillary areas;
  • swelling of the upper limbs on the affected side.

At external examination should be addre­of discoloration on the skin.

Pallor could be fold­kovremennoy and prolonged. Short-Bled­Nost occurs when a strong negative emotional stimulation. Long pale skin, mucous membranes associated with a decrease containing­Nia hemoglobin or red blood cells; blood loss may be caused by, associated with tumor growth and destruction of blood vessels and TKA­her or disintegration of the tumor itself.

Icteric staining of the skin and sclera Svyda­ments of pancreatic disease, liver, bile ducts, associated with zlokache­governmental tumors or with compression of the bile duct, or hepatic metastases lesion OPU­Hawley stomach, intestines. jaundice is accompanied­etsya pruritus.

darkening of the skin associated with the bilateral lesion adrenal primary tumors or metastases.

Pigmentation disorders. The skin may be different spots: a completely amelanotic, korich­nevye or almost black. When the erosion, Th­shuek, warty excrescences in place pigment­GOVERNMENTAL spots rapidly growing pigmented lesions and tumors should alert the patient.

Malignant melanoma – they never hair growth. Melanoma tends to decay and bleeding. A defect may,­be covered with crusts, but does not heal. when discovered­SRI these changes should be immediately Obra­titsya to the oncologist.

Slightly education in the lower lip, painless, takes the form of ulcers with valikoobraznymi edges or sprawl resembles a “cauliflower”. Sprawl may ne­Wraith to the mucosa of oral cavity, on the skin, to capture most of the lower lip. The appearance at­lenii patient must first sign of­ratitsya to the oncologist.

Swelling in the lower jaw. at­may be cause of cancer of the salivary glands. At the bottom of the neck to the left or right from the center in the isthmus of the thyroid gland tumor can be observed more often – benign. Inspection should be subject to over-and podklyuchich­nye region, as there are often localized various pathological processes.

Swollen lymph nodes. when it’s time to­zhenii lymph node metastasis of the tumor they took­Chiva, may merge with each other in konglo­Merate. The skin over them, normal color,

 The appearance of puffiness, pastosity face and neck, and then swelling with erythema and cyanosis. Emerging symptoms associated with passing-leniem or tumor invasion of vascular or nerve structures localized inside the breast­hydrochloric cells.

On examination of the chest is important symmetric­Nosta and even participated in the act of breathing both its halves. Neoplastic processes lead to lagging­vaniyu one of the halves of the chest that we meet again­ments abuse department of respiration­GOVERNMENTAL sites or the entire lung.

If a strong increase in the liver or the spleen, at least – for tumors of the stomach and intestines, pancreas, abdominal wall deformation occurs and its asymmetry, but it happens very rarely.

Changing contours of the upper and lower finite­NOSTA, edema associated with compression of vessels OPU­holyu. Swelling of one upper limb are at the apex of the lung cancer or metastatic cancer of lactic­hydrochloric gland. Swelling of both upper extremities – metastases in the mediastinum.

Swelling, deformation of large joints, as well as thickening of the nail phalanxes of fingers (like drumsticks rounded and bulging nail plates on watch glasses type) is accompanied by lung cancer.

On examination of mammary glands (standing in front of a mirror), you must pay attention to the possibility­Noe appearance asymmetry, contour changes or form one breast due Inverted nipples or protrusions or uniform skin increasing mammary abrupt swelling of the nipple. The appearance of the tuberosity, the change in color of the skin on the breasts, the appearance of erosions, crusts in the area of ​​the nipple – are manifestations of cancer.

After the inspection is necessary to palpation. Palpation is based on a subjective feeling and evaluation of the examined organs and tissues. In this study, measured density, flexibility, mobility and pain of the subject body part or organ. In palpation teaching­exist fingertips, nails should not ka­satsya skin. The study is best done in van­hydrochloric, when the body is sufficiently good and fresh Preheat­the right or in the shower, when lathered hands and body. You can use the cream for relief slidin­Nia fingers over the skin.

Palpation begin with feelings of stroking­yuschimi movements:

  • Skin and facial tissues;
  • scalp;
  • the front and back of the neck;
  • supraclavicular and subclavian areas;
  • chest front and sides;
  • separately palpable mammary glands (samopalpatsiyu mammary glands);
  • armpits;
  • stomach;
  • inguinal region;
  • upper and lower limbs.

Tumors of the salivary glands can be felt in the form of dense hilly, maloboleznennyh or bezboleznennyh formations at the front and a little to the bottom of the external auditory canal in the sides of individuals or in the submandibular region. In the neck area, and over the subclavian, axillary and inguinal areas of palpable lymph nodes. Normally, he would not be felt, are small, oblong, painless education. When a malignant tumor lesion skie lymph nodes increase in size, they take another shape and become dense touch Sometimes they merge together into a conglomerate which is defined as the formation of irregularly shaped lumpy palpation.

Palpation of the abdomen is best done in the supine position with gentle pumping

movements in a clockwise direction. you can Detectlive dense formations, enlarged liver, right upper quadrant, the spleen – in the left upper quadrant pain Palpation revealed place strengthening the already existing pain.

Inguinal lymph nodes is determined by palpation, normally they are rarely palpable.


Palpation painless dense formations on the external genitalia is a cause for consultation at the oncologist. conduct samoob­you must follow at least the 1st time in a month.

The detection of tumors, which has proved itself in no way, should be alert and make you immediately consult a specialist­sheet for diagnosis. The sooner reveal­Lena tumor, the better the result of her treatment. By­Try not to worry, do not despair, and mood­os to fight the disease, believe in the possibility, if not cure, the considerable improvement.

Currently, it is desirable to self-examination­it do after 40 years. To do this:

  • undergo an annual fluorography obsl­dovanie, and in the presence of unfavorable factors

— 2 times per year;

  • Women should be 1 once a year obsl­dovanie a gynecologist, in the presence of mastitis – 2

-3 times a year examined by a breast physician or oncologist;

  • at the slightest changes in the stomach req­Dimo conduct fluoroscopy fibrogastroscopy;
  • a change in the gut is recommended wasps­Motril proctologist, endoscopic examination – colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, rentgenissledoBani, and barium enema.

It must be remembered that the older the person, the more likely the occurrence of his cancer.

Many patients experience a panic in determining the tumor during self-examination.

The word “fear” comes from the Latin ango] (compress, compress). Fear – the uncertainty, the devil­objective, anonymous, unmotivated emotion, fear changes the direction of the thoughts and behavior.! Experiencing the emotion of fear, the patient has] a likely prognosis of possible troubles and acts on the basis of this (often not reliable) forecast. This emotion can.] Be like sthenic and asthenic and against­Cach either in the form of stress conditions, either in the form It affects (horror – as an extreme variant of fear).

It is impossible to eliminate all the experiences of life ,, are associated with an aspect of its destruction, t. E. The sensation of pain, suffering, fear, and hatred just as it is impossible to imagine life without the positive experiences associated with aspects of her creations mi (joy, pleasure, love).

When the objective changes in the health status of the patient has obsessive fears. So ,, for diseases affecting vital functions may thanatophobia – the fear of death. Defeating this condition a person may not always be very, very often the patient needs psychological help aimed, first, of all, to reduce the level of fear and anxiety, improvement of psychological adaptation.

Cancers are very bye­wounded kind of pathology. But further propagation­Country population inadequate representation­Lenia about cancer and incorrect information about the possibilities of dealing with it.

Most forms of cancer develops’s advantage­governmental in the elderly. With the aging of at­villages the number of cases increases regularly. There are three areas of the fight against cancer:

  1. Prevention.
  2. Early diagnosis.
  3. Treatment.

At each of these stages are used definition­lennye methods and opportunities.

disease prevention – this is the most chapters­a specified direction. Prevention is always went­human, more humane than cure. Development of methods and recommendations for cancer prevention bases­camping on objective knowledge about its etiology and epi­demiologii. The relationship of different factors with the risk of cancer, as well as the prevalence of these factors and cancers they cause, allow us to determine the share of cases­s disease caused by a specific factor­torus.

  • Tobacco. Tobacco smoke – carcinogen for a human. Numerous epidemiological studies have proved the link of smoking to the development oflung cancer, oral cavity, the lower lip, larynx, esophagus, stomach, pancreas. Even passive inhalation of environmental tobacco smoke among non-smokers can significantly increase their development of cancer and other diseases.
  • Nutrition. The relationship between the development of a number of pa­postglacial diseases with excessively high-calorie meal (high Ms consumption­votnyh fats). The consequence of this nutrition is­Smiling overweight. In these patients increases the risk of colon and prostate cancer- in men, breast, uterus, gallbladder – in women. The increase in consumption ovo­cabbage soup and vegetables significantly reduces the risk formed­Bani most forms of cancer. The protective effect of fruits and vegetables is due, above all, contains­zhaschimisya them vitamins and food portage­us.
  • Alcohol. Regular consumption increased­GOVERNMENTAL doses of alcohol increases the risk of cancers such as cancer of the mouth, larynx, pharynx, esophagus. Moreover, the combination of alcohol with smoking the risk of increase cancer­INDICATES repeatedly.
  • Solar radiation. After a special IC­investigations proved the connection of increased risk of skin tumors, including cancerous­hydrochloric melanoma, a part of the solar radiation and periodic burning sun. recom-etsya be in the area of ​​solar radiation in the ut­rennie and evening hours.
  • reproductive behavior – in the absence of birthhistory or late delivery (after 30 – 35 years of the first birth), chronic disorders of menstrual­Foot cycle, late onset of menopause (after 55 years) – may increase the risk of their wives­Shin breast, ovarian and uterine body.
  • Professional carcinogens. There are production and technological processes, koto­ryh used substances that cause cancer in humans. As a result of years of research proved that asbestos, nitrosomines, coal tar, cadmium, arsenic, nickel compounds, chromium, polycyclic carbon­hydrogens increase the risk of developing cancer.
  • Viruses. A role in the development department­GOVERNMENTAL forms of cancer viruses play. Human papilloma virus may increase the risk of developing cervical cancer. Einstein’s virus-Bard – the development of nasopharyngeal cancer. Hepatitis B, C – the development of liver cancer.

Scientific studies on the factors and conditions of development of cancer prevention methods for determining:

  • Give up smoking, do not smoke in the presence of non-smokers;
  • Avoid sunbathing, avoid sunburn;
  • Follow the safety precautions in the workplace and at home with regard to substances that can Call­Vat tumor;
  • do not abuse alcohol; “Avoid excess weight, keeping physically active;
  • eliminate overeating. Bring total calorie­riynost power in accordance with the physics mode­iCal loads and energy costs;
  • Limit your intake of animal fats, cop­chenyh and savory foods;
  • Eat more vegetables, fruits, vegetables, cereals high in fiber;
  • take regular vitamins, mikroelemen­you antioestrogens protease inhibitor;
  • carry out preventive vaccination pro­TIV hepatitis B virus

Methods of drug prevention Settle­Vanir experimental and epidemiological­E research has shown that WHO­possibility of preventing or deterring times­Vitia tumors using appropriate with­Unity.

For the prevention of breast cancer have been offered anti-estrogen drugs, poskol­ku estrogens in certain conditions STI­formulated the development of neoplastic changes in this organ.

Antiestrogen drug tamoxifen effects­veins in relation to breast cancer prevention as­lezy, It is prescribed prophylactically in women with a hereditary predisposition to cancer of this localization or women who have re­carrying the cancer is a breast for its pro­Galaxy are in the other.

Patients undergoing surgery for evil­quality tumor, it is necessary in the diet to introduce vegetables and fruits rich in vitamin­E. patient’s body after surgery requires at­complements mineral substances, various trace elements, which are fruits and vegetables. Because of the low calorie they are widely used in clinical nutrition.

Potatoesrightly called a second bread. It is well absorbed by the body, potato fiberIt does not irritate the mucous membrane of the stomach and ki­shechnika. 100 grams of young POTATO tubers­To contain up to 20 mg of vitamin C (cook­hydrochloric processing is lost to 10 mg of vitamin C). Kar­Tophel contains potassium salts calorie potato substantial (greater than 2 – 3 times the caloric content of many other vegetables). Those who are inclined to corpulence, a potato in the diet should be restricted.

tomatoes are very useful, they guest carotene – provitamin A, ascorbic acid, vitamins of group B. From mineral salts they contain potassium, phosphorus, iron, organic acids, millstands­Chatka. Low calorie tomato allows you to include them in the diet of people who are overweight. Recent evidence suggests that the oxalic acid in tomatoes is not larger than in potatoes. Less than in other vegetables, contain­zhitsya purines in them that could disrupt exchange ve­stances and lead to the development of gout.

cucumbers composed of 95% water in small amounts they contain vitamins C :, Bp B2. Mineral salts in greatest potassium.

Carrot (Especially brightly colored korneplo­dy) contains a large number of carotene from to­torogo in the human body is formed vitamin A. In carotene in carrots is other vitamins: PP, C, group B is rich carrots potassium salts. th­tovit carrot juice and carrot salad req­Dimo immediately before use, because carotene quickly loses activity under the influence of Kis­Air loroda.

Beet It characterized by a high sugar content, fiber, organic acids (malic, citric, etc.), mineral salts (potassium, mag­Nia), vitamins. Young beets used vmese­those with tops, which a lot of ascorbic acid, carotene, B vitamins

White cabbage – source of vitamin C. In 100 g it contains up to 30 mg of vitamin C (summer and autumn). Of the mineral substances are contained in cabbage potassium, calcium, phosphorus. cabbage is­etsya low-calorie product, so it hunts­but include in the diet of overweight people. Very good­Shaw saved vitamins sauerkraut.

Onionrich in volatile production is delayed­conductive development of pathogens. It has long been believed that the bow is useful by “seven ailments”. Volatile inhibit putrefactive bacteria in the oral cavity, in the intestine. Onions stimulates the appetite. In large onions contain essential oils, we arrive at­guides him to a specific aroma and flavor. There therein vitamins: C ,, B2 (riboflavin), PP (niacin) from E­neralnyh substances are potassium, phosphorus, calcium, and iron.

Pumpkinuseful and tasty. Use it as a CBE­ments, and in baked or boiled. Very useful pumpkin juice. In the pulp of ripe pumpkin contains­Xia: sucrose – 4.5%, vitamins B2, B2, C, carotene in large quantity, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium.

courgettescontain sugar about 3%very rich in minerals, vitamin C.

eggplantrefer to the tomato vegetables. They contain vitamins (PP, C), carotene, minerals­nye substances (potassium, phosphorus). eggplant Maloka­loriyny, so it is recommended to enter into the diet of obese people power.

Sweet pepper the content of vitamin C (Al­korbinovoy acid) – one of the richest ovo­soup. The mature red pepper contains vitamin C.­camping several times more than oranges or tangerines. 40 – 50 grams of raw sweet lane­ca correspond to the daily rate of the forehead needs­Century vitamin C in peppers a lot of carotene (TEST­Tamina A), Bl vitamins B2, E, PP. of mineral­Sub- stances especially a lot of peppers potassium salts. In the heat treatment of the vitamins is lost,so it is particularly useful pepper fresh.

Melon It contains a lot of nutrients. Among them easily digestible carbohydrates, vitamin C, carotene. Mineral substances particularly valuable Nali­Chie iron.

Watermelon contains up to 90% water, it has a pleasant­nym sweet taste, good thirst quencher. Sla­Dost watermelon depends digestible chelove­com fructose and glucose (13%). The watermelon at­absence of fiber, pectin, vita­With mines, B1, B2, PP, carotene, mineral ve­stances – potassium, calcium, sodium, phosphorus, and iron. Due to the content of iron and folic sour­you are taking part in hematopoiesis, watermelon is used for therapeutic purposes in case of anemia.

Fruits and berries – not only of vitamins (C, carotene, etc.). They contain easily digestible carbohydrates, sugars (glucose, fructose, sugar­for) various mineral substances of organic­skie acid, volatile, dietary fiber (millstands­Chatka).

apples– dominated by glucose and fructose. They are not rich in vitamin C. Apples are rich in salts ka­Leah, have a diuretic effect. They contain­zhatsya malic, citric and other organic acids.

plum – fresh, dried, especially prunes – has a gentle laxative effect, contains­INH potassium, vitamin C.

cowberryrich in organic acids (whether­monnoy, malic acid, oxalic acid, benzoic acid).

strawberry(Garden, forest) contains a lot of wi­Tamina C and relatively little organic acids.

Raspberries – the therapeutic effect is due to contain­zhaniem therein salicylic acid.

Sea buckthorn It combines extremely large amounts of vitamin C (200 mg per 100 grams of berries), a significant amount of vitamin E. By containing­NIJ buckthorn carotene than even carrots.

Blackcurrantfamous abundance of vitamins C and P. The content of vitamin C black Smorodov­second only to the briar.

Red currants – less vitamin C, but the pain­Chez carotene.

bilberry It has a large number of tannins. It used as an astringent,

briar– record the content of vitami­on C (479 ml per 100 grams of fresh fruits and 1200 ml per 100 grams of dried fruits, as sous­xux berries per 100 grams accounts for more).

Aronia, rowan rich in vitamin P and S.

sorrel – useful for hematopoiesis. One of the first to appear in spring. It is rich in iron and magnesium. Sorrel need to eat in raw form, adding to salads. Nutritionists, naturopaths believe that Neorio­ganic oxalic acid, against which a cart­RAWA doctors (salt deposits, and so on. d.), formed by the heat treatment, which is why you need to cook sorrel is very rare, and fresh sorrel body brings many benefits.

From the above, the following recommendations – upot­reblyat vegetables and fruits with freshly prepared­kah, salads and as little as possible – in boiled and fried, as the vitamins lose their own­Properties. It is desirable for the entire year to use the parsley, and the green leaves and stem of parsley, the more useful it is for human consumption.

Surgical method of treating cancer It is the most efficient for most zlokache­governmental tumors. When this method was removed­are affected by a tumor organs or tissues, mouth­Wounding cause physical suffering of the patient, as well as the threat of further tumor spread throughout the body.

But this method does not always help the patient recover from cancer. Even a very small number of remaining after the operator­radio tumor cells that are invisible to the eye and does not distinguish by touch, sharing intense, can give rise to a new cell population which manifest themselves at some time in the form of relapse­va. Therefore, the surgical treatment of tumors removed within healthy tissue.

However, the increased volume of tissue removed can not always protect from disease progression. Cancer feature – the ability to give rise daughters­These tumors (metastases). Most often, the tumor cells spread through the lymphatic system. This system provides the suction of tissue water, and metabolic products consists of shrinking network­Shih vessels, gradually merging into a rump­nye, which flow through the lymph nodes. Lymph nodes are small glands performing protection of the organism from genetics­cally foreign cells or substances entering from the outside or generated in the body. Lymph­cal lymph nodes collected from any organ or body part, but their defeat Protective function­you assume the other node group. When injected into the lymphatic system tumor cells following­dnie delayed lymph nodes and mo­Gut cause metastasis development. Therefore, when the opera­tion removed lymph nodes related to the affected tumor anatomical area. This Obus­lovlivaet often crippling nature of such operators­tions, their severity and risk.

Refusal of surgical treatment is justified only in cases where the tumor affects organs that removal is not compatible with life, or when there are distant metastases. But even with this surgical procedure is applied to reduce swelling to expose the remaining tumor foci other therapies.

The earlier a tumor is detected the small size, the functional sparing operation will be carried out more easily. Such operation is well tolerated by the elderly and immunocompromised patients.

In some cases, a surgical method is used when to remove the cancer is no longer possible or feasible due to deliberate non-radical, but the associated complications are By direct­governmental threat to life. Patient death may at­not set foot on the progression of the tumor, and on the Call­Bathrooms her bleeding, intestinal obstruction, etc. The operation in this case -.. forced, and it is directed at overcoming these complications.

Surgical method used in malignant tumors, aims at saving or extending the patient’s life. Nevertheless, the fear of mutilation and the nature of the threat of being disfigured in some cases is the cause of failure of them. Some patients do not opt ​​for surgery because of lack of faith in the possibility izle­cheniya this way. If the patient offer operators­walkie-talkie, it means that oncologists have confidence in WHO­Moznosti complete removal of the tumor, the hope, if not a complete cure, the life-prolonging.

Thanks to a major development in oncology at rehabilitation of patients who have been previously ka­attending to surgery with modern amenities increased­mennye possibility of reconstructive surgery now. So, after a laryngectomy patients previously had to use the Voice of­Vym machines or study “of esophageal­losu “. Currently, developed methods for surgical repair of voice features such as using voice prostheses, and without them. After removal of the breast is possible not only to use the gel of the prosthesis, but its plastic recovery using GSS­governmental body tissues. For a better cosmetic result can be additionally used­vatsya endoprostheses, introduction of specific gels and the like. d. After removing the prosthetic jaw may­vanie its metal structures.

Currently, many cancer pain­nym administered as treatment for radiation therapy. In 40% of cases it is used as self­yours elf a treatment for cancer. Radiation therapy, also as a surgical method can completely destroy a cancerous tumor, there is a radical anti-tumor effect.

If patients understand what is happening the surgical treatment of tumors (removed certain organs, tissues), the effect of radiotherapy remains a mystery in many ways. If the tumor is not removed, then what happens to it? Where did she go? What complications are waiting for a patient after radiation therapy?

Common to all used in medicine ionization­ziruyuschih radiation is effective, from the point­of view of the biological action, transferability process­sa large amounts of energy in the sensitive structure of their action. Bearers of this energy can be type specific electromagnetic radiation (x-rays, gamma rays radioak­tive elements) or bundles of nuclei­particles (electrons, protons, neutrons, and t. d.).

The absorption of such quantities of energy DNA molecule – the basis of the genetic code – it leads to damage and as a result, disturbance of­cell activity. They can also be damaged by meme­brane cells, enzymes and other important biologists­cal molecules. This so-called direct WHO­effect of radiation energy. The indirect mechanism svya­coupled with exposure to ionizing energy for this different molecules and water, which is an integral part of the cell. As a result of the absorption­of the energy of the ions and the formation of free radicals. Each radical may in turn damage the whole molecule, which races­fall to the new radicals. So there is ionization­tion, which leads eventually to the harmed­Denia cell and tissue structures.

Radiobiological effect caused by radiation energy, depending on the biological properties of the exposed­shihsya irradiated tissue. Cells most sensitivity­tion to damaging factors when they in the process of division. Thus nai­are more sensitive to radiation tissue cells to­toryh most intensely divided. In the humanorganism are cells of the sex glands, blood-forming organs, some types of epithelium. insensitive­us to the radiant energy muscle and nerve tissue. .Zlokachestvennye tumors can occur in various­GOVERNMENTAL organs and tissues. sensitivity novoobra­mations exposed to radiation is higher, the bo­Lee was the primary sensitive tissue in which the tumor originated. But no matter of any tissue tumor originated, its cells divide much more frequently than the unaltered cells. Therefore, the same dose of radiation has on the tumor­fabric-hand more pronounced effect than Raspaud­Proposition near healthy. Based on this and radiotherapy. Its task – the maximum damage the cancer while preserving Pot­lities normal tissue structures.

Depending on where located zlokache­governmental neoplasm, oncologists use IU­todiku and a source of radiation that penetrates to a depth of a well-defined and absorbed by the OPU­holyu.

In some cases, using the contact method of radiation therapy. The radioactive source is disposed in the vicinity of the tumor:

  • applicator treatmentIt is in apposition to the surface location with the most­-adjoint tumors (skin, cornea, etc.). plates of a material which is a source of radiation (strontium, cobalt, cesium, etc.);
  • intracavitary treatment – summing a radioactive source tumors located­Foot in the hollow body. Source in the form of cylinders, spheres and other forms of organ lumen is introduced into and retained there for a certain time. Then – it is extracted. This method is used for the treatment of cervical and endometrial cancer, rectum, bladder. Sometimes radioactive elements in the form of colloidal solutions is introduced into the hollow bodies (mo­chevoy bladder, uterus) or body cavity (plevu­-sectoral, abdominal);
  • Remote method of radiation therapy Prima­nyaetsya with deep-seated cancer. The name of the method was due to the fact that the source of radiant energy is determined on­Mr distance from the patient. radiation source provides deep penetration of radiation and uniformity of absorption fabrics. Treatment is carried out on the special, providing a high degree of radiation protection devices.

Used machines, in which the source of radiation energy is radioactive cobalt, which gives a deep penetrating gamma radiation. Such devices are used for the treatment of tumors of any localization. Currently began transition from devices with radioactive sources for accelerators of elementary particles (electrons, protons). The depth of penetration is governed by the energy under the influence of which the particles move. By changing this energy, and you can change the depth of penetration of particles into the tissue and the maximum irradiated tumor and minimal – healthy tissue. On such machines can be floor­chat almost divergent energy beams of diameter­rum up to 1 cm for the point of irradiation is not very­large tumors (e.g., brain).

Needed to damage the tumor dose lu­chevoy energy can not take it odnomoment­but. Treatment is carried out at regular sessionsintervals. The higher the radiation dose the patient received, the longer the interval until the next session. This protects the surrounding OPU­Chol healthy tissue.

Place in the skin through which the radiant energy tray is called “field irradiation­Nia “. To reduce the radiation exposure to healthy tissue, but to ensure the damage of the tumor, using multiple fields of radiation from different angles. Sometimes the source is moving at exactly calc­tannoy trajectory around the patient, the center of rotation is a tumor. With this method of treating the load on the healthy tissue is minimized.

Before radiation therapy is performed dosimetric planning (measured and rasschity­vayut maximum dose effect on the tumor). The dose of radiation received by tissue depends on the activity of the source and time of exposure, but partitioned­etsya usually uneven. The farther away from the source,the effect is less pronounced, since different areas of the tumor receive different doses of radiation.

Malignant tumors can metastasize to the lymph nodes, which are po zone­hundred new tumor. As the surgical treatment,and radiation therapy, treatment success can be achieved only rid the body of all the centers of evil­qualitative growth. Therefore, exposure should be under­jected and the tumor and its metastases. sometimes IU­tastazy located next to education and can be irradiated with the primary tumor, but more often they are about­spatially separated, which requires a separate le­cheniya. In advanced cases, when the cure Paci­cient is no longer possible, radiation therapy is used to inhibit tumor growth, reduce its size or tumor-induced removal of heavy sympto­mov (compression vessels, trachea, brain) and serves to prolong or improve the patient’s quality of life. Radiotherapy gives complications, and that they cause fear of this type of treatment. Oslozh­neniya may be general in nature and take the form of:

  • weakness;
  • sickness;
  • loss of appetite;
  • fervescence;
  • changes in the blood (decrease Included Quantity­CTBA leukocytes or platelets);
  • dermatitis, ulcerations of the skin at the site of radiation therapy;
  • radial cystitis, proctitis, pneumonitis. Complications of radiation therapy can be corrected or eliminated by the termination of therapy or a break in treatment. The risk of complications of radiation therapy is much less of a risk at the same hee­rurgicheskom treatment.

Since ancient times, people worked on different cancers herbal medications or natural substances. These funds, having­guides cauterizing action applied mes-spot or inward to impact on the tumor.

Currently open substances that cause­Suitable growth inhibition or death of malignant tumors. Medicinal substances obtained chemistry­cal way, and the treatment they received the name of chemotherapy.

The use for the treatment of cancer pain­valuable natural or synthetic hormones called hormone therapy. The combined use of chemotherapy and hormones for therapeutic purposes in cancer is called chemo-hormonotherapy. Effects on the immune system in order to enhance anti-tumor immunity win­lo title tumor immunotherapy.

At the heart of modern chemotherapy is uc­use direct damaging effect about­tivoopuholevogo drug on malignant klet­ku. To achieve the destruction of all or the majority­ARISING tumor cell anti-tumor agents apply in person maximum tolerated doses. Chemotherapy drugs have side steps, and patients often refuse them. Chemotherapy or cytotoxic agents are capable of rapidly damaging the cells of any tissue, t. E., Not only the tumor but also healthy.

Patients often ask the question: “Is it worth it to do chemotherapy, especially the operation and radiotherapy did their job?”. Surgery and radiation but­FNF is essentially local in nature: these methods can be used to cure the tumor, located in the definition­lennom place, even if it reaches a considerable size and has regional metastases. but zloka­quality education, spreading their cells through the bloodstream, can metastasize to distant organs and tissues. How much and in what authorities were cancer cells as appeared metastases, you­yasnit is not always possible. Therefore, removing or y- irradiation­chenie recovery the patient is not given. Here also need chemotherapy. Spreading the bloodstream, the antineoplastic drug may impact­Vat on the tumor and its metastases, regardless of their to­lichestva and localization. damaging chemotherapy­by genetic apparatus malignant cells break fission process, causing its destruction.

Tumors are composed of an enormous number cancerous­GOVERNMENTAL cells. Only in one gram of tumor TKA­neither contains about a billion cells. Some are in the process of division and are sensitive to the action of cytostatic agents, others are in a state of rest, the action of chemotherapy reserved. Dividing cells, are in different phases of the process, damaged one antitumor cytostatic and remain bezraz­personal to the action of another. Therefore, to enhance the effect of chemotherapy oncologists old­are used simultaneous introduction of two, three and more cytostatics with different mechanisms of antitumor action. Such variants soche­tany dosage of anticancer agents are called chemotherapy regimens. for each­the first type of cancer vyrabota­us most effective schemes of treatment.

When you receive a complete response when the tumor after chemotherapy is not detected, to the bodies­Lowland is a sufficiently large number of OPU­-tumor cells that may cause recurrence (re-occurrence of tumors). It is therefore necessary to carry out repeated courses himiote­rapii. Each dose chemotherapy determinescytostatics, which is administered not once, but often­E, with certain intervals between administration­E. Such intermittent administration of cytotoxic drugs easier ne­Renos patient and the impact on a large number of tumor cells. During chemotherapy patient complications can occur:

  • inhibition of blood (hematopoietic cells bodies are rapidly dividing and therefore highly sensitive to the cytostatic effect);
  • appetite loss;
  • nausea, vomiting, stomatitis;
  • gastroenteritis;
  • hair loss;
  • phlebitis, thrombophlebitis.

There are a number of tools to help patients move chemotherapy. It must be remembered that this is not a harmless and simple treatment, but it is not necessary to be afraid of.

Treatment of anticancer drugs is accompanied­nied by a variety of side effects to be aware of the patient to determine the time of their appearance.

Chemotherapy often has unfavorable­effect on the organs of the digestive tract and prevents the normal diet. Patients complying with a balanced, rational que­the better to withstand adverse events.

In the absence of gastrointestinal diseases kishech­Nogo tract, liver and pancreas ezhed­patient-today diet as during chemotherapy, and in the intervals between its courses should contain foods the following four groups: protein, dairy, bread and cereals, and fruit and vegetable.

With any diet during chemotherapy, in between its courses and after completing required intake of multivitamins. It is advisable to soche­thief multivitamin with ascorbic acid.

During chemotherapy, it is desirable to increase fluid intake: vegetable, fruit and berry juices. Particularly useful Carrot­ny, beet, tomato, raspberry and brusnich­ny juices.

In the absence of edema or renal diseases should drink 1.5-2 liters of fluid per day. Edema, fluid presence in the pleural or peritoneal cavity should drink less. Number of­consumes fluid should not exceed the amount of urine more than 300 ml.


Loss of appetite begins on the day of the procedure and lasts for several days. when PLO­Hamster appetite shown foods koto­rye with a minimum amount possible to obtain the maximum amount of nutrients (nuts, honey, whipped cream), they need to eat between meals. Food should initiate APME­tit. It is advisable to use the cream soups, as they contain more protein. Showing no­fatty meat and fish broth. In the absence of oral diseases and gastro-ki­antiplaque tract allowed to use priprus­you stimulate your appetite: pepper, mustard, as well as the infusion of wormwood herb, leaf shamrock, centaury, oregano. contribute to improve­NIJ appetite pickle, sour and salty vegetables and acidic juices: lemon, cluck­Gov., currant.

Treatment of many anticancer prep­Tami is often accompanied by nausea and vomiting. To reduce nausea, take the following recom­dations:

Perform breathing exercises in the fresh air (or on the balcony with the window open).

  • Suck on a piece of ice before breakfast, a slice of frozen lemon, sour plum, plum, Iago­dy cranberry, lingonberry.
  • Eat dry foods on an empty stomach: crackers, bagels, toast, biscuits.
  • Eat small meals throughout the day, so that the stomach is not a searching­overflow shaft.
  • Avoid food that has a specific taste, not eat foods with a strong odor.
  • Avoid fried, especially fatty foods, dairy sauces, whole milk (which can be switched on again in the diet when the nausea will pass).
  • Do not eat desserts.
  • Do not eat too salty, spicy and hot food.
  • Avoid the fluid intake during meals, not to fill her stomach.
  • Drink one hour before meals cold, not sweetened drinks.
  • Eat slowly to the stomach did not fall a large amount of food at a time.
  • Avoid eating just prior to administration of the drug.

Another consequence of unpleasant reception of some antitumor drugs is one hundred­Matit – damage to the oral mucosa, leading to its inflammation, and in severe forms – for painful ulcers and infections. Vero­yatnost development stomatitis decreases at a constant­Yann subject to the following rules:

mouth rinse mouthwash ( “Pepsodent”, “Elhadent” et al.);

grease lip oily lipstick (men – colorless hygienic lipstick);

cooling the oral mucosa piece of ice;

to avoid irritation of oral acute pi­boiling, hot, sour and salty foods, as well as fruits and vegetables containing high­Niemi acid (tomatoes, grapefruits, lemons, kitty­lye apple varieties);

rinse the mouth after ingestion of food soda solution (1/2 teaspoon baking soda in a glass water), brine (1 teaspoon of salt in 1 liter of water), as well as infusions camomile, sage, oak bark, St. John’s wort.

After decrease in acute effects Execu stomatitis­zuyte soft foods. Cook steamed, boiled dishes. It is desirable to consume more liquid (up to two liters per day).

The cells of the gastrointestinal tract is very NKM­ble to the toxic effects of certain chemotherapeutic drugs. Their damage leads to frequent and loose stool (diarrhea).

Treatment with an appropriate diet to­rule in the restoration of water and mineral balance of vitamins and protein. It is not­sary to comply with the main condition: the food should be possible to spare the intestinal mucosaka, products must be digestible and be suitably cooked (cooking with water or steam, to use in a shabby), with a limited content of carbohydrates and fats.

Exclude from food: fatty meats, fish, meats, marinades, canned food, hot spices and irritating the intestinal tract vegetables (radishes, onions, radishes, garlic, beans, spinach, sour grades of berries and fruits), fresh whole milk, soft­cue bread, pastries.

Recommended dishes soft consistency, Hea­lye or room temperature, small pore­tions. Useful rice porridge, oatmeal, mashed cottage cheese, soft-boiled eggs, vegetable soup, ba­Nana, pureed apples, mashed potatoes on the water,cooked mashed pumpkin. Effective juices, jellies, mousses blueberry, cherry, chokeberry, “blackcurrant.

It should be more fluid. drinking tep­Loe or room temperature, as hot or cold liquid only enhances diarrhea. You can drink the mineral water without gas. Useful decoctions of dried pear, rose, pomegranate bark, herb St. John’s wort, burnet root, peel Seele­GOVERNMENTAL apples.

When a large fluid loss can cooki­vit next drink:

a liter of boiling mineral water added

1/2 – 1 teaspoon salt

1 teaspoon baking soda,

4 teaspoons of sugar.

Quite rare in patients having constipation while taking chemotherapy drugs. Butif they occur in the morning on an empty stomach is recommended to drink a glass of cold water or fruit­Vågå juice (peach, plum, apricot) or a hot lemon drink, eat grated carrots, apple, 5-7berries prunes, filled with boiling water in the evening.

The diet is necessary to include the products of God­Tide fiber buff gives Vare­naya beet puree of dried fruits. From the first dishes healthy soups, borscht on vegetable broth.

With constipation from the diet excludes kopchenos­ti, pickles, marinades, cocoa, chocolate, restriction­Chiva intake of fried foods, sausages from­dely. Eat less bread and bakery woode­ly from wheat flour, pasta­GOVERNMENTAL products, dishes from semolina. It is from­sound of spicy dishes, as well as with products­holding tannins (strong tea, cocoa, teas, jelly). Contraindicated: onion, Sanchez­nok, radish.

When liver disease is recommended to exclude from the diet of fried, spicy and salty foods, cottage­causeway use fatty meats and fish, pickles, smoked products, fungi and products god­ies cholesterol (brains, egg yolks, fish and mushroom soups, broths). During an exacerbation it is not recommended to eat radishes, turnips, rhubarb, onions, beans, peas. Recommended: vegetarian soup, borscht, cabbage soup with fresh cabbage, milk soups; of dishes: Steam meat and fish cakes, boiled lean meat, poultry. The menu included from­varna vegetables (carrots, beets, cauliflower, pumpkin, zucchini), and ripe fruit, bake­nye apples, fruit and berry juices. Recommended milk porridge: oatmeal, rice, semolina with Izya­IOM or honey, lactic acid products (prostok­your, kefir, fermented baked milk, acidophilus milk, yogurt, not­fat cottage cheese).

If the kidney function is assigned low-protein diet with sharply limited Included Quantity­stvom salt. Recommended dairy dishes, including­tea cheese, cheese paste. From the first dishes – borscht, beetroot, vegetables, cereals soups without hot spices. meat consumption limit. Especially useful raw vegetables: carrots, protein­channaya cabbage, cucumbers, fresh green peas, parsley, green onions in a small amount, etc.

Showing fruits and berries, juice, jelly, component­you, broth hips, cranberry juice. expedient­Miscellaneous Avoid the usual bake bread­ki (i.e., salt), meat, fish and fungal broths, as well as sausages, pickles, marinades,mushrooms, horseradish, mustard, chocolate.

When cystitis caused by chemotherapy drugs, you need to drink plenty of liquids. blah­gotvorno are milk, milk tea, alkalis­nye mineral water. Particularly useful watermelonsmelons. Not recommended for alcoholic beverages, spicy dishes, sauces, seasonings, meats, canned fish.

During treatment, can develop adverse reactions that are caused by the radiation. Most often, reactions occur in 2-3weeks after the end of radiotherapy. Patients mo­Gut the following changes occur.

  1. Changes in the skin: dryness, flaking­of itching, redness, occurrence of bubbles.

For the prevention and treatment of these reactions use spray “Panthenol” ointment “Rescuer”, any modern baby oil on to care for­ments.

  1. Changes that occur in the treatment of Paci­ENTOV with tumors of the head: hair loss, hearing loss, feeling of heaviness in the head.
  2. Side effects that may occur in the treatment of patients with tumors of the face and neck: dry mouth, sore throat, pain or constant eating, spasm, hoarseness, loss of appetite.

To reduce dry mouth and PersheNia recommended throat gargle decoction of chamomile, calendula, peppermint, burying an empty stomach in the morning and at night Sea buckthorn oil with sunflower oil in the ratio of 1: 2 in the nasal cavity.

Teeth treated daily gel and penalties­schimisya toothpaste with a soft tooth­hydrochloric brush.

To reduce the pain when receiving the food rec­pouts:

  • light diet with exception of spicy, salty, acidic, roughage;
  • food should be cooked well milled­Noah;
  • eat frequently in small portions;
  • When cooking use to grow­tion and butter;
  • drink plenty of fluids in the form of vegetable and Fruko­tovyh juices, broth hips, non-acidic cluck­vennogo Morse, etc.
  1. Side effects of radiation therapy in the OPU­Hawley’s chest cavity: Breast tumor; gland, muscle soreness, swelling and bolez­nennost breast pain and difficulty in swallowing, dry cough, shortness of breath, skin reaction in the irradiated region.

Treatment and prevention are the same as in paragraph 1 of.

  1. Adverse effects occurring at leche­SRI patients with tumors of the abdomen and pelvis: loss of appetite, weight loss, Tosh­Note, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal bands in the area of ​​pain­ti, impaired urination (often involuntary­Noah) with a burning sensation, pain in the rectum, vaginal dryness, discharge from the puts­schA.

When irradiated during the first week recom­pouts:

  • food taken frequently, small meals 4-6 times a day;
  • food to be boiled or cooked­hydrochloric steamed, pureed;
  • eliminate fried, salty, spicy foods;
  • exclude the dairy products the appearance of bloating;
  • Diet № 4 (vegetarian soups lean meat or fish broth, cereal, jelly, meat boiled, white bread from flour of higher grades, better in the form of crumbs, freshly made cheese, broths blueberry, rose, ripe pears, non-acidic apple, tea cocoa water, black coffee).
  1. Side effects may occur at about­awns radiation limbs, pelvis, spine: brittle bone (mostly – konechnos­Tei), changes in blood parameters, muscle soreness, the reaction of the mucous membranes of the esophagus, ki­shechnika – it depends on the body part that is under the­jected to irradiation.

Patients receiving radiation therapy must to rest for three hours after the procedure to transfer the treatment well. Balanced diet can prevent weight loss. req­Dimo wear loose clothing, not a pressure on an­region of irradiation. Underwear should be soft­Kim (linen or cotton). In the shower, use moderately warm water. irradiation area protected from sunlight.

Mammary gland – hormone-dependent organ. As its normal development and function, and pathological changes occur in it

under the influence of certain hormones. The development of breast due not so much to increase or decrease the concentration of individual hormylnew blood as with their discharge rhythm disturbances, changes their normal ratio in the body, hormonal regulation of biochemical processes in the cells and breast tissues.

These disharmonious disorder is usually not visible to the patient, but may persist th­rows. Factors that could cause and support them to increase the risk of developing breast cancer.

One factor is age: 40 – 60 years.1 At this time in a woman’s body occur Mountainsmonalnye changes caused by the development of menopause and menopause. development cus­Max – a normal physiological process, but there is a reduction in the period of adaptation! stability of the organism and the endocrine system.

At present, many women for the prevention of pregnancy using various | birth control pills (contraceptive) agents including hormonal pills that protect against unwanted pregnancy. For a long time, for many years, their use, especially in the very young age or before the first birth, it is undesirable because it can disrupt the hormonal metabolism in the body and stimulate the development of existing precancerous changes in the mammary gland MO.

The development of breast cancer may method­update themselves excessive consumption of animal fats­of origin of foods high in cholesterol, sugar, concentrated broths, egg yolk, butter.

Vitamins play an important role in metabolic processes, including having a protective anti-tumor character. chronic insufficient­current in the body of certain vitamins, such as beta-carotene, is a cause of cancer mo­mammary gland.

Psychoneurogenic disorders, neurosis, neuritis­Walls, dystonia can STI­formulated the tumor changes in the body. Theyoccur after psycho, psychological ne­overloads.

Often the patients themselves attribute the appearance at the tumor changes in the breast with herbs­Mami (bruises, squeezing, wound). mechanical­cal trauma of breast, especially neodnok­Conversely repetitive, can stimulate swelling­Left changes.

Smoking and alcohol use increase the risk of of developing breast cancer, especially in women who smoked before the onset of permanent IU­nopauzy.

Every woman should:

  • observe the rules of good nutrition, CCA­cially during the menopause and climacterium;
  • monitor the body weight;
  • Do not neglect the anti-tumor activity of vitamins – beta-carotene, vitamin C;
  • protect the mammary gland from bruises, bumps and squeezing;
  • wear a loose and well maintained mo­mammary glands bras through which pre­duprezhdaetsya their sagging, concussion of the motion;
  • treated promptly ovary disease, thyroid, liver;

“Restrict or eliminate smoking, use of alcohol.

Early diagnosis of precancerous and tumor­O breast disease depends ca­my woman. It is recommended that profilak­matic inspection once a year after reaching the age of 30.

The best time for self-study – the first week after the end of menstruation. The mammary gland during this period is in most softened state.

Women in menopause, you must select BSE is one of the days! month, remember (and it is better to write down) the date of the survey and its results. It is convenient to examine the breasts, standing in front of a mirror.

Skills Training includes the following:

  • inspection of linen in contact with milk! glands. Slight discharge from the teat leave traces on the bra in patches of yellow, brown, reddish, or greenish colors watery;
  • Inspect the nipple. Pay attention to their shape and color. To see if they are extended, do not get wet whether, whether cracks or sores;
  • Inspect the skin of the breast: for redness entire surface or selected areas, rashes, diaper rash, “lemon peel” skin. It is necessary to determine whether there is bulging, retracted, ulcerated and shriveled breast track. Attention is drawn to the shape and size of breast (whether increase or decrease in size, surface roughness) on the symmetry (one if they raised the level of­toil at the institution hands behind his head, whether to fix one of them, to tighten up and b side). Inspect the gland when turning right and Nala­in.


Feeling (samopalpatsiyu) is carried out three or four pads serried fingers (in dependenceing on the size of the breast), standing before the mirror methodically penetrating circular movements. Beginning with the probing of surface. This makes it possible to identify formations located directly under the skin. Then comes a deep probing] fingertips when moving in a circle gradually reach the surface of the ribs.


A woman is on a bed in a supine position. If the surface is soft, under the right shoulder blade puts a firm pillow or cushion of towels (Figure 6). Right arm extended along the body, the left hand is carried out probing­of the right breast. Then, the position of­menit palpation for the left breast.

Samopalpatsiya squares method.

Mentally entire surface of the anterior chest wall­ki from the collarbone to the costal margin and the right breast is divided into squares. Palpated consistently each square, down from top to bottom as if the stairs, do not forget to test the armpit and nipple.

Samopalpatsiya spiral method.

Probing the anterior chest wall lactic­hydrochloric gland being spirally concentric circles converging starting from the armpit (the right arm is placed under the head) to the nipple, without missing any portion of the breast.

When samopalpatsii breast say what they feel and remember those feelings. Because breasts are lobed Straw­ix, under your fingers will feel a certain graininess or tyazhistost, but it is not at­signs of the disease.

When samopalpatsii, as mentioned, be sure examined axillary region where the possibility but swollen lymph glands. front piles­Naya wall is palpable breast due to the possible presence of additional lobes, in which the same changes may occur, as in the mammary glands.

It is necessary to test the nipple and about podsoskovuyu­domain, as under the nipple may occur OPU­Chol. Most tumor is detected in that quarter of the breast, which is located above and outside.

Survey complete, carefully taking pain­PWM index fingers nipple and pressed on it – so check that there are no selections, and if any say characterized­ter selections.

The procedure is repeated and carried out his right hand for the left breast. Then examine both mo­mammary gland described­hydrochloric procedure in position standing. Better to do it in the shower, lathered obsl­when the wind blows area. Skills Training for menstruating women must be conducted in the first week after the windows­Chania menstruation. For women in menopause – in fixed­Bathing day of the month.

Samopalpatsii main goal – to get proof­of the nonexistence of the disease. In the presence of pack­lotneny in the mammary gland is necessary to pay­Xia to the expert.

Condition after mastoektomii

Thanks to the progress made in the last decade in the treatment and early diagnosis of breast cancer, thousands of women live after the operation for more than 5 years. Statistics in oncology abroad highlights the five-year survival rate when the most likely to relapse. The woman lived­Shaya more than 5 years, it is considered cured.

Unfortunately, diagnosis and treatment of it awareness­NVIRONMENTAL of breast accompanied by high levels of suffering women. after SET­Lenia diagnosis develop severe psychological stress, most of the women in a state of duality. On the one hand, the need to pass through a difficult treatment, transfer crippling operation (removal of the breast), but remain­Xia live, despite the consequences for work and family life; on the other – it is impossible to reconcile with the operation, makes you a “monster.” Sometimes this leads to the disintegration of the family, if the husband or loved one is not as strong in spirit, and dealt with a difficult situation in life at a time when women are especially needed their love and support.

After surgery and other treatments at home, a woman with a “sick” and hand stitch on breast place, poor, deprived of the opportunity to perform many household chores, overtaking­a second psychological shock, depriving as it seems to be no hope of a return to the pre­bo ttom life. Oncologists call this situation psi­hologicheskim collapse since transferred mastoektomiya “knocks out” the majority of women from social habitual and social environment and ve­children to major changes in their mentality and way life. This crisis requires a change­Nia position in life, a woman revising itsof attitude to the world, words and deeds relatives and acquaintances.

Help a woman cope with these difficulties – the main task of doctors, friends, family, colleagues, because in this period the further life of the women in the family and society. Oncologists believe that the climate in the family depends on the attitude of the patient to their slaughtering­Levan: the smaller woman dramatizes situa­tion, the more likely it is to get support from his family. First it is necessary to analyze their old life and try to identify the factors to­torye contributed to the emergence of her cancer slaughtering­Levan and, if possible, eliminate them.

After surgery, the body having anatomical and physiological disorders that may instill­STI to partial disability. The question arises: how to live, to live for a long time, have a happy family, to work actively?

So, what should be done to avoid re­tsidiva diseases to boost the body’s defenses, to feel good, to work on the floor­hydrochloric power to enjoy life?

To do this:

  • change the mode of the day;
  • Change the diet;
  • lose weight and stabilize it;
  • engage in physical therapy;
  • learn how to make the physical and psycho-emotional overload;
  • take care of their appearance;
  • do what he likes; h “to undergo regular medical examination.

To restore physical strength, strengthen the nervous system is necessary:

  • sleep for 7 – 8 hours with an open window or pane;
  • before bedtime take a warm shower, directing a jet of water in the first place on the sore spots;
  • the patient’s hand in bed to lay on the pillow, the hand located on a hill (this is the norm­lizuet lymph circulation and its outflow);

sleeping on your back or on the side opposite to the operated side to their weight in the BPE­sleep on me not to squeeze the hand vessels by about­operated seats;

in the event of pain simple­Lebanon nature in operation, your hands, nadplechevoy area should see a doctor (it can be a symptom of bronhopleksita – Sun­Singe brachial plexus);

  • Do not lift or carry heavy weights, if possible, not to overtax his hand. When the load increases, the muscles need more oxygen, which increases blood flow to the hand and the already congested venous blood and lymph in the BPE­mja like outflow therefrom is difficult;
  • It is recommended to limit the load on the hand from the operation – up to one kg for one year, up to two kg for four years and up to 3 – 4 kg for a lifetime. Better to wear a bag on the Tribes­Th good hand;
  • Avoid any work related to the long inclined position with his hands down. Such restrictions are necessary to obstacles­Vat stagnation of lymph in the lymphatic vessels of the hands;
  • After the physical work required to do exercises, self-massage of the hands (by stroking fingers to armpit), giving it an elevated position at an angle of 10 ° – 15 °.
  • when working near her house, laundry, washing dishes, especially with the use of strong detergents, it is recommended to use protective gloves;
  • sewing with thimble;
  • Avoid mosquito bites, bee by using insect repellent for protection;
  • Do not give injections, take blood for analysis to measure arterial PRESSURE­of the arm from the operation;
  • Do not expose the clamping arm: eliminate the tight cuffs on a blouse and a nightgown, monitor, clothes to armhole were too narrow bra straps should not crash into the Tribes­cho. Rings, bracelets and watches should be kept on hand, free, without the girth;
  • Avoid burns while cooking, to prevent sunburn. Summer wear shlya­pu, long-sleeved clothing (to protect from the sun);
  • Do not use hot water when washing MSRP­dy, taking a bath. Contraindicated in sauna, steam bath, and washing in the bathroom shower is recommended to replace;
  • Protect the arm from the operation of the on­cuts, burns, abrasions, cracks, scratches, caused­GOVERNMENTAL animals and plants. these precautions­STIs are important for the prevention of erysipelas are inflamed­Nia. Erysipelas leads to increased swelling and hands;
  • when receiving the injury must be rinsed with running water and wound doubly treat antiseptic solution (iodine, 0.01% chlorhexidine bigluconate 70-degree alcohol solution). If the arm at the site of injury flushed, there was a pain at­towered body temperature, increased swelling of the hands, you need to see a doctor;
  • After work, remove the bra with a prosthesis, to relax your body, put on its­Bodnya cotton clothing;
  • protect the area of ​​the second operation, the healthy hand in the transport market, in crowded places.

In the recovery period (7-8 days after surgery) recommended set of therapeutic exercises to restore maxi­mal range of motion in the hand operated with­Noah side, maintain the correct posture, coordinate­ordination of movements, complete respiration, normalization of the general condition. Exercise better vypol­nyat twice a day – morning and mid-afternoon. Very effective for the recovery of motor Fung­ktsii hands with the operated side sessions in the pool. They can start in 2-3 months after surgery.

Lymphedema – a swelling of the tissues due to limfostazom. In most cases, lymphedema times­Viva after surgery for breast cancer, pelvic cancer, as a result of post-operative infections, radiation therapy, recurrence of cancer in the axillary, inguinal and pelvic areas.

Unlike other types of lymphedema swelling svya­linked to changes in the skin and subcutaneous TKA­nyah, especially when the surface lymphatics heavily overloaded or clogged. The re­result of these changes, the patient has the following symptoms:

  • tumor limb (upper or lower);
  • feeling of tension in the limbs;
  • feeling of heaviness;
  • pain and discomfort due to the pressure on the joints and ligaments.


  • lymphorrhea (leakage of lymph fluid);
  • keratosis (skin roughness as a consequence of protein fibrosis and infection);
  • formation of deep wrinkles in the skin;
  • sign Stemler (inability to take the skin of the limbs in the fold);
  • cellulite.

A patient experiencing psychological difficulties, associated with changes in shape of the body, an increase in the volume of the upper or lower limbs.

Lymphoedema can not be completely cured, so the sooner treatment starts, the positive result will be achieved soon. effectiveness­ciency of treatment depends on the degree of swelling of the limb, and general physical condition of the patient.

The range of therapeutic measures in lymphedema include psychological support for the patient (training, consulting), skin care, Exercising, gentle massage, lymph drainage.

Chronic lymphedema skin becomes dry and discolored. Microcracks skin spo­Property ingress of bacteria into the ideal for their breeding environment – fixed lymph. Accuracy and compliance with the rules of hygiene can reduce the risk of infection:

  • Wash, dry (blotting motion­niyami) swollen limbs, the area between the thumb­E and the folds of skin (to prevent fungus­postglacial infections);

“Lubricate the skin washed limbs softening cream – to moisturize the skin and prevent the appearance of cracks (Remember: the cracks – the entrance gate for infection!).

* Apply a cream, water-based (ointment as emulsions). It is not recommended to use creams

and lotions containing lanolin (warning contact dermatitis), perfumed creams and lotions that cause irritation;

  • Wear gloves when working at home or at­manor portion;
  • Use a thimble when sewing;
  • Take care when trimming nails;
  • to protect the skin on the affected limb from sunburn;
  • Use an electric razor when shaving hair in the armpit;
  • Protect the edematous arm of injection, blood sampling for analysis of pressure measurement;
  • treating cuts and abrasions antiseptiche­medication available in a timely manner.

If the skin on the edematous limbs reddened, appeared burning, soreness, a local increase in temperature, swelling, should like to see a doctor as soon as possible. In this case, the prescribed antibiotics, rest, elevated polo­voltage for swollen limbs (pillow under the arm or leg). Unfortunately, cases of acute inflammation ^ is the inevitable consequence of chronic congestive lymphedema.